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Online Charles Dickson

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What Is Breast cancer?
« on: May 18, 2018, 03:22:25 PM »



What Is Breast cancer?

Before you go into what breast cancer is all about we need to know what cancer is:
Cancer is a malignant growth or tumor resulting from the division of abnormal cells, It is caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body.
Cancer is the name given to a collection of related diseases. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells begin to divide without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues.

Breast Cancer


Cancer is not just one disease there are many types of cancer. It’s not just one disease. Cancer can start in the lungs, the breast, the colon, or even in the blood. Cancers are alike in some ways, but they are different in the ways they grow and spread.
Cancer occurs as a result of mutations, or abnormal changes, in the genes responsible for regulating the growth of cells and keeping them healthy. The genes are in each cell’s nucleus, which acts as the “control room” of each cell. Normally, the cells in our bodies replace themselves through an orderly process of cell growth: healthy new cells take over as old ones die out. But over time, mutations can “turn on” certain genes and “turn off” others in a cell. That changed cell gains the ability to keep dividing without control or order, producing more cells just like it and forming a tumor.



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NaijaSky

What Is Breast cancer?
« on: May 18, 2018, 03:22:25 PM »

Online Charles Dickson

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Re: What Is Breast cancer?
« Reply #1 on: May 18, 2018, 03:23:32 PM »
Breast cancer is a kind of cancer that develops from breast cells. Breast cancer usually starts off in the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply them with milk. A malignant tumor can spread to other parts of the body. It usually starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump.
A malignant tumor can spread to other parts of the body. A breast cancer that started off in the lobules is known as lobular carcinoma, while one that developed from the ducts is called ductal carcinoma.




NaijaSky

Re: What Is Breast cancer?
« Reply #1 on: May 18, 2018, 03:23:32 PM »

Online Charles Dickson

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Causes of Breast cancer
« Reply #2 on: May 18, 2018, 03:24:44 PM »
Causes of Breast cancer
The causes of breast cancer are not fully understood, no one knows the exact causes of breast cancer. It is only the doctors in charge that know why one woman develops breast cancer and another doesn’t, and most women who have breast cancer will never be able to pinpoint an exact cause. What we do know is that breast cancer is always caused by damage to a cell's DNA.

Yet there are some risk factors that could increase the chances of having cancer, this include:
Age
Cancer can take decades to develop. That's why most people diagnosed with cancer are 65 or older. While it's more common in older adults,cancer isn't exclusively an adult disease — cancer can be diagnosed at any age.
Breast density
Dense breasts have less fatty tissue and more non-fatty tissue compared to breasts that aren't dense. Dense breasts have more gland tissue that makes and drains milk and supportive tissue (also called stroma) that surrounds the gland. Breast density can be inherited, so if your mother has dense breasts, it's likely you will, too.
One way to measure breast density is the thickness of tissue on a mammogram.
The Breast Imaging Reporting and Database Systems, or BI-RADS, which reports the findings of mammograms, also includes an assessment of breast density. BI-RADS classifies breast density into four groups:

    Mostly fatty: The breasts are made up of mostly fat and contain little fibrous and glandular tissue. This means the mammogram would likely show anything that was abnormal.
    Scattered density: The breasts have quite a bit of fat, but there are a few areas of fibrous and glandular tissue.
    Consistent density: The breasts have many areas of fibrous and glandular tissue that are evenly distributed through the breasts. This can make it hard to see small masses in the breast.
    Extremely dense: The breasts have a lot of fibrous and glandular tissue. This may make it hard to see a cancer on a mammogram because the cancer can blend in with the normal tissue.


Still, no one method of measuring breast density has been agreed upon by doctors. Breast density is not based on how your breasts feel during your self-exam or your doctor's physical exam.
Research has shown that dense breasts:
Can be 6 times more likely to develop cancer
Can make it harder for mammograms to detect breast cancer; breast cancers (which look white like breast gland tissue) are easier to see on a mammogram when they're surrounded by fatty tissue (which looks dark)
Steps you can take
If you have dense breasts, there lifestyle choices you can make to keep your breast cancer risk as low as it can be:

    Maintaining a healthy weight
    Exercising regularly
    Limiting alcohol
    Eating nutritious food
    Never smoking (or quitting if you do smoke)


These are just a few of the steps you can take. Review the links on the left side of this page for more options. Along with lifestyle options, many doctors recommend additional screening for women with dense breasts. This might include MRI scanning and ultrasound.
More frequent screening: If you have a higher risk of breast cancer because you have dense breasts, you and your doctor will develop a screening plan tailored to your unique situation. General recommended screening guidelines include:

    A monthly breast self-exam
    A yearly breast exam by your doctor
    A digital mammogram every year starting at age 40

NaijaSky

Causes of Breast cancer
« Reply #2 on: May 18, 2018, 03:24:44 PM »

Online Charles Dickson

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Re: What Is Breast cancer?
« Reply #3 on: May 18, 2018, 03:27:27 PM »
Digital mammography is better than film mammography in women with dense breasts, regardless of age.
Your personal screening plan also may include the following tests to detect any cancer as early as possible:
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the breast.

Ultrasound
Talk to your doctor about developing a specialized program for early detection that meets your individual needs and gives you peace of mind.
To improve the information learned from your breast imaging studies, it's important to both compare this year's study to prior years' studies and to correlate the information learned from the various imaging studies obtained (what you feel in the breast, compared to the results of your mammogram, MRI, and ultrasound). Usually test reports will say if the recent imaging test is different from other tests or prior results of the same test. Obtaining a copy of each breast imaging report and putting them in a binder keeps you in the loop and reduces the risk of your tests falling through the cracks or someone missing an important finding.
Being a woman
Simply being a woman is the main risk factor for breast cancer. Men can have breast cancer, too, but this disease is about 100 times more common in women than in men. This might be because men have less of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone, which can promote breast cancer cell growth.
Birth control pills: Using oral contraceptives within the past 10 years may slightly increase the risk of developing breast cancer. The risk decreases over time once the pills are stopped.

NaijaSky

Re: What Is Breast cancer?
« Reply #3 on: May 18, 2018, 03:27:27 PM »

Online Charles Dickson

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Re: What Is Breast cancer?
« Reply #4 on: May 18, 2018, 03:28:36 PM »
Excess Alcohol
Drinking alcohol is clearly linked to an increased risk of developing breast cancer. The risk increases with the amount of alcohol consumed. Compared with non-drinkers, women who have 1 alcoholic drink a day have a very small increase in risk. Those who have 2 to 5 drinks daily have about 1˝ times the risk of women who don’t drink alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption is known to increase the risk of other cancers, too. The American Cancer Society recommends that women have no more than 1 alcoholic drink a day. A drink is 12 ounces of regular beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof distilled spirits.
Family history
Some cancers can be related to the genes that were passed down from your parents. It's not very common but you might find it helpful to understand how this works.
Overweight or obese
Higher body mass index (BMI)
Abdominal fatness, and weight gain during adulthood, are classified by WCRF/AICR as probable causes of post-menopausal breast cancer.


NaijaSky

Re: What Is Breast cancer?
« Reply #4 on: May 18, 2018, 03:28:36 PM »

Online Charles Dickson

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Re: What Is Breast cancer?
« Reply #5 on: May 18, 2018, 03:29:06 PM »
Greater birth weight is classified by WCRF/AICR as a probable cause of pre-menopausal breast cancer.Higher BMI is classified by WCRF/AICR as probably protective against pre-menopausal breast cancer. An estimated 9% of female breast cancers in the UK are linked to excess body weight.
Greater body fatness is associated with higher sex hormone levels (fatty tissue produces more oestrogen), which may partly explain the link between body fatness and breast cancer risk.[3] Abdominal fatness and weight gain during adulthood are thought to be more accurate measures of fatty tissue levels, compared with BMI, because BMI includes lean tissue mass.
Previous diagnosis of breast cancer
Personal Health History:  If you have been diagnosed with breast cancer in one breast, you have an increased risk of being diagnosed with breast cancer in the other breast in the future. Also, your risk increases if abnormal breast cells have been detected before (such as atypical hyperplasia, lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) or ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS)).
Radiation
Radiation exposure: Women who, as children or young adults, had radiation therapy to the chest area as treatment for another cancer have a significantly increased risk for breast cancer.

NaijaSky

Re: What Is Breast cancer?
« Reply #5 on: May 18, 2018, 03:29:06 PM »


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