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Skin Care

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clip Acne causes and treatment
May 13, 2019, 11:40:00 AM by Charles Dickson
Acne causes and treatment

Acne is a skin condition that occurs when your hair follicles become plugged with oil and dead skin cells. It often causes whiteheads, blackheads or pimples, and usually appears on the face, forehead, chest, upper back and shoulders. Acne is most common among teenagers, though it affects people of all ages.Effective treatments are available, but acne can be persistent. The pimples and bumps heal slowly, and when one begins to go away, others seem to crop up.
Depending on its severity, acne can cause emotional distress and scar the skin. The earlier you start treatment, the lower your risk of such problems.     Symptoms
  • Common acne
  • Cystic acne
  Acne signs and symptoms vary depending on the severity of your condition:
  • Whiteheads (closed plugged pores)
  • Blackheads (open plugged pores)
  • Small red, tender bumps (papules)
  • Pimples (pustules), which are papules with pus at their tips
  • Large, solid, painful lumps beneath the surface of the skin (nodules)
  • Painful, pus-filled lumps beneath the surface of the skin (cystic lesions)
When to see a doctorIf self-care remedies don't clear your acne, see your primary care doctor. He or she can prescribe stronger medications. If acne persists or is severe, you may want to seek medical treatment from a doctor who specializes in the skin (dermatologist).For many women, acne can persist for decades, with flares common a week before menstruation. This type of acne tends to clear up without treatment in women who use contraceptives.
In older adults, a sudden onset of severe acne may signal an underlying disease requiring medical attention.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warns that some popular nonprescription acne lotions, cleansers and other skin products can cause a serious reaction. This type of reaction is quite rare, so don't confuse it with the redness, irritation or itchiness where you've applied medications or products.
Seek emergency medical help if after using a skin product you experience:
  • Faintness
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Swelling of the eyes, face, lips or tongue
  • Tightness of the throat
Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic CausesFour main factors cause acne:
  • Excess oil production
  • Hair follicles clogged by oil and dead skin cells
  • Bacteria
  • Excess activity of a type of hormone (androgens)
Acne typically appears on your face, forehead, chest, upper back and shoulders because these areas of skin have the most oil (sebaceous) glands. Hair follicles are connected to oil glands.
The follicle wall may bulge and produce a whitehead. Or the plug may be open to the surface and darken, causing a blackhead. A blackhead may look like dirt stuck in pores. But actually the pore is congested with bacteria and oil, which turns brown when it's exposed to the air.
Pimples are raised red spots with a white center that develop when blocked hair follicles become inflamed or infected with bacteria. Blockages and inflammation that develop deep inside hair follicles produce cystlike lumps beneath the surface of your skin. Other pores in your skin, which are the openings of the sweat glands, aren't usually involved in acne.
 Factors that may worsen acneThese factors can trigger or aggravate acne:
  • Hormones. Androgens are hormones that increase in boys and girls during puberty and cause the sebaceous glands to enlarge and make more sebum. Hormonal changes related to pregnancy and the use of oral contraceptives also can affect sebum production. And low amounts of androgens circulate in the blood of women and can worsen acne.
  • Certain medications. Examples include drugs containing corticosteroids, testosterone or lithium.
  • Diet. Studies indicate that certain dietary factors, including skim milk and carbohydrate-rich foods — such as bread, bagels and chips — may worsen acne. Chocolate has long been suspected of making acne worse. A small study of 14 men with acne showed that eating chocolate was related to a worsening of symptoms. Further study is needed to examine why this happens and whether people with acne would benefit from following specific dietary restrictions.
  • Stress. Stress can make acne worse.
Acne myths
  • How acne develops
  These factors have little effect on acne:
  • Greasy foods. Eating greasy food has little to no effect on acne. Though working in a greasy area, such as a kitchen with fry vats, does because the oil can stick to the skin and block the hair follicles. This further irritates the skin or promotes acne.
  • Hygiene. Acne isn't caused by dirty skin. In fact, scrubbing the skin too hard or cleansing with harsh soaps or chemicals irritates the skin and can make acne worse.
  • Cosmetics. Cosmetics don't necessarily worsen acne, especially if you use oil-free makeup that doesn't clog pores (noncomedogenics) and remove makeup regularly. Nonoily cosmetics don't interfere with the effectiveness of acne drugs.
Risk factorsRisk factors for acne include:
  • Age. People of all ages can get acne, but it's most common in teenagers.
  • Hormonal changes. Such changes are common in teenagers, women and girls, and people using certain medications, including those containing corticosteroids, androgens or lithium.
  • Family history. Genetics plays a role in acne. If both parents had acne, you're likely to develop it, too.
  • Greasy or oily substances. You may develop acne where your skin comes into contact with oily lotions and creams or with grease in a work area, such as a kitchen with fry vats.
  • Friction or pressure on your skin. This can be caused by items such as telephones, cellphones, helmets, tight collars and backpacks.
  • Stress. Stress doesn't cause acne, but if you have acne already, it may make it worse.
clip Petechiae causes
May 11, 2019, 02:03:06 PM by Charles Dickson
Petechiae causes

Petechiae are pinpoint, round spots that appear on the skin as a result of bleeding. The bleeding causes the petechiae to appear red, brown or purple. Petechiae (puh-TEE-kee-ee) commonly appear in clusters and may look like a rash. Usually flat to the touch, petechiae don't lose color when you press on them. Sometimes they appear on the inner surfaces of the mouth or the eyelids.
Petechiae are common and may indicate a number of conditions, ranging from minor to very serious.

   Tiny blood vessels (capillaries) link the smallest parts of your arteries to the smallest parts of your veins. Petechiae appear when capillaries bleed, leaking blood into the skin. A number of things can cause this bleeding, including:
  • Prolonged straining
  • Medications
  • Medical conditions
Prolonged strainingTiny petechiae of the face, neck and chest can be caused by prolonged straining during activities such as coughing, vomiting, giving birth and weightlifting.MedicationsPetechiae may result from taking some types of medications, including:
  • Phenytoin (Cerebyx)
  • Penicillin
  • Quinine (Qualaquin)
Infectious diseasesPetechiae may be caused by any of a number of fungal, viral and bacterial infections, including:Other medical conditionsPetechiae may also be caused by noninfectious medical conditions. Examples include:
clip Types of Skin and Care Regime
May 16, 2018, 06:14:46 AM by Isaac Adeniran
 Dry Skin Dry skin has a thin layer texture and looks dry and flaky on the surface, it is caused by inadequate production of oil (sebum) by the body. This type of skin requires more care, and the best way to care for it is to moisturize it always with body and facial creams specially formulated for dry skin both at night and during the day. The effect of this skin type is usually felt during the dry season (especially the harmattan season) due to dehydration thus making the skin appear older and flaky. So it’s best to use a creamy cleanser for the face as well as moisturizing creams containing vitamin E and Shea butter for the body, rather than gel lotions. It is advisable to take lots of water to help hydrate the skin since the body produces less sebum than what is required. However one of the advantages associated with this skin type is that it is hardly susceptible outbreaks of acne and pimples.
 Normal Skin This type of skin texture is the best- it is the ideal kind of skin because it has a balanced production of sebum. It is never too dry or oily. Normal skin requires less attention than other skin types, however that is not a reason to neglect normal routine care for the skin. It also requires normal cleansing; toning and moisturizing- facial mask should be used at least fortnightly to exfoliate the skin and keep it looking fresh and healthy.

 Oily Skin
 Oily skin is caused as a result of excessive production of a substance called sebum by the sebaceous glands in the skin. Sebum is a naturally healthy skin lubricant-oily skin is identified by the shiny outlook of the skin large and clearly visible pores everywhere expect around the eyes, it is susceptible to clogged pores, blackhead and build up of dead skin cells on the skin surface.

 One of the ways to control the excess oil particularly around the face is to clean up the skin with natural face cleanser formulated especially oily skin. Gel cleansers and rose water are the best for this kind of skin type however a light moisturizer should be used as well to counter any drying effects from the cleanser. Use a toning lotion that contains a PH of 4 to 5.5 to help balance and hydrate the skin as well. Avoid as much as possible the use of soap on the face it is not good for the skin. Stay away from foods containing saturated fats and use skin products that contain very little natural oils, so as not to aggravate the oily condition of the skin.
 The positive aspect of this skin type is that it is not prone to wrinkling and other signs of aging because the oil helps to keep needed moisture locked into the skin making the skin look young and fresh.
May 16, 2018, 06:07:53 AM by Isaac Adeniran

 The beauty of your skin is determined by how well you take of it, the attention you pay to it and ultimately your lifestyle and level of hygiene.
 The skin is the outer covering of the body. In humans it is the largest organ of the body and because it comes in contact more with the environment, the skin plays a key role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss. The skin helps the body also to synthesize vitamin D, regulate body temperature.
 Since our skin is the outer coating of the body, Skin care should be an essential part of our daily routine because the function of the skin is disturbed when it is dirty; it becomes easily damaged and prone to infection. Hence the need therefore to give adequate care and attention to the skin. A beautiful skin makes a whole lot of difference in one's appearance; good poise, carriage and body features are not complete without a good skin. A healthy glowing complexion is the most important attribute of a natural beauty.
 Before delving in skin care routines proper, it is essential to note however, that skin type varies, and this most times could be as a result of climate changes, genetics, state of health, diet and environmental factors. Thus the routine care differs according to skin type. It better to know which category your skin belongs so as to avoid further aggravation and damage to the skin.
xx Skin camouflage
May 10, 2018, 07:51:06 AM by Charles Dickson
Skin camouflage

Skin camouflage involves applying coloured creams to the white patches on your skin. These creams are specially made to match your natural skin colour. The cream blends in the white patches with the rest of your skin, making them unnoticeable. You can also get skin camouflage cream that contains sun block or has an SPF rating. Self-tanning lotion (fake tan) may also help to cover vitiligo. Some types can last for several days before you need to reapply them. Self-tanning lotion is available from most pharmacies. Vitamin D If your skin is not exposed to the sun, there is an increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D is essential for keeping bones and teeth healthy. Sunlight is the main source of vitamin D, although it's also found in some foods, such as oily fish. It might be difficult to get enough vitamin D from food and sunlight alone. So you should consider taking a daily supplement containing 10 micrograms (mcg) of vitamin D. Read more about who should take vitamin D supplements and how much vitamin D adults and children need.

Surgery may be an option for you if light therapy and drugs don't work. The goal of the following techniques is to even out your skin tone by restoring color. Skin grafting: In this procedure, your doctor removes very small sections of your normal, pigmented skin and attaches them to areas that have lost pigment. This procedure is sometimes used if you have small patches of vitiligo. Possible risks include infection, scarring, a cobblestone appearance, spotty color and failure of the area to recolor. Blister grafting: In this procedure, your doctor creates blisters on your pigmented skin, usually with suction. He or she then removes the tops of the blisters and transplants them to an area of discolored skin. Possible risks include scarring, a cobblestone appearance and failure of the area to recolor. The risk of scarring is less with this procedure than with other types of skin grafting. Tattooing: In this technique, your doctor uses a special surgical instrument to implant pigment into your skin. It is most effective around the lips, especially in people with darker skin. Drawbacks include difficulty matching the skin color, the tendency of tattoos to fade and their inability to tan. Also, the skin damage caused by tattooing may trigger another patch of skin disdepigmentation.
xx Skin depigmentation Home Remedies and Home Cure
May 10, 2018, 07:49:34 AM by Charles Dickson
Skin depigmentation Home Remedies and Home Cure


Albinism is an inherited disorder caused by the absence of the pigment melanin. It can occur in skin, a home remedy. People with albinism must use a sunscreen at all times because they are much more likely to get sun damage and skin cancer.

    Hypopigmentation/ Pigment loss after skin damage

Papaya Face Pack to Remove Sun Tan: Apply a face mask of mashed papaya or use papaya juice on the affected area. It's a good home remedy for tans and sunburns, plus it will smoothen and improve your skin complexion. Tomato Juice, Oatmeal and Yogurt Mix: Make a preparation of tomato juice, 2 tablespoons of oatmeal, and half a teaspoon of yogurt. Apply on the patches and rinse it off after sometime (or when it dries completely). Do it daily till you see results. Turmeric Powder and Lemon Juice: Add a teaspoon of lemon juice to a teaspoon of turmeric powder. Apply the paste to the affected area and leave it on for 15 minutes. Wash it off with cold water. Do not go out into the sun with the application on.


 Aloe Vera Juice to Lighten Dark Spots: Gently apply aloe vera juice or gel on the affected area and leave it on for 15 minutes. Wash it off with warm water. Aloe vera contains mucilaginous polysaccharides that can effectively lighten dark spots.
Orange Paste: Grate the skin of an orange and make a paste / gel with few teaspoons of milk. Leave it on for half an hour and then massage gently and wash it off with warm water. Exfoliate your face at least 3 to 4 times a week with this paste. Exfoliation encourages cell renewal and removes the dark blotches.
Sunscreen: Sunlight worsens the condition, so use sunscreen at all times.

Vitiligo Foods to Avoid: It is best to avoid sour foods including sour fruit juices, says Dr Rajesh Shah, Director at Life Force. This is because sour foods shift the pH balance of the body to acidic, but for melanin production, you need a more alkaline base. Avoid sea food too because of contaminants such as mercury.
Ginger Juice: Apply a mixture of ginger juice and red clay to the affected area. It might take a long time to heal, but it is effective.
Keep Hydrated: Drinking water kept overnight in a copper vessel can help reduce vitiligo patches. Make it a habit.
Ginger Juice: Apply a mixture of ginger juice and red clay to the affected area. It might take a long time to heal, but it is effective.

Complications of Skin depigmentation
People with Skin depigmentation may be at increased risk of:

    Eye problems, such as inflammation of the iris (iritis)
    Hearing loss
    Side effects due to treatment, such as dry skin and itching
    Sunburn and skin cancer
    Skin depigmentation does not affect your physical health. However, if you have vitiligo you may feel distressed and unhappy about how your skin looks. It may seriously affect your self-confidence, regardless of how much or how little your skin is affected. It can cause embarrassment, and may affect you at work and in your personal relationships. If depigmentation affects your self-confidence, speak to your GP about it. They will be able to give you advice and information about counseling and support groups.

Social or psychological distress

clip Causes of Skin depigmentation
May 10, 2018, 07:45:27 AM by Charles Dickson
Causes of Skin depigmentation

    Skin depigmentation can be caused by a condition known as vitiligo. The signs of vitiligo are painless patchy or generalized areas of depigmentation that can spread or stay stagnant. The exact cause is unknown, but it is thought to be secondary to an autoimmune attack on the melanocytes that are responsible for pigmenting the skin.
    Another cause is a benign skin fungal infection called tinea versicolor. This fungus can cause small patchy areas of discoloration which may only be noticed when the area around becomes tan. It is treated with topical or sometimes oral (in severe cases) antifungals.

Vitiligois most common type of skin depigmentation and  is a condition in which you lose the pigment of your skin. Pigment, or melanin, causes skin color and is produced by cells called “melanocytes.” Vitiligo can sometimes develop where there are hair roots, such as on your scalp. The lack of melanin in your skin can turn the hair in the affected area white or grey.

Symptoms/Signs of Skin depigmentation
The main sign symptom of Skin depigmentation is white spots or white all over the body on the skin. The main sign of skin deco is pigment loss that produces milky-white patches (depigmentation) on your skin. Other less common signs may include: Premature whitening or graying of the hair on your scalp, eyelashes, eyebrows or beard, it is white spots or patches on your skin.

Areas commonly affected by depigmentation

Most commonly affected areas by depigmentation are

    Fingers and wrists
    Inside your mouth
    The skin around your mouth and eyes

Expect in case of albinism which cover the whole body.
clip Different types of skin depigmentation
May 10, 2018, 07:31:25 AM by Charles Dickson
Different types of skin depigmentation?           
Skin Depigmentation    

   This rare, inherited disorder is characterized by a total or partial lack of melanin in the skin, compared to the pigmentation of siblings and parents. Albinos (people with albinism) have white hair, pale skin, and pink eyes.
   There is no cure for albinism. Albinos should avoid sunlight because they lack melanin. This is a natural protection from sunlight.

   Dark brown, symmetric patches of pigment on the face. During pregnancy, this is called the mask of pregnancy. Sun exposure, hormones and the oral contraceptive pill are thought to cause melasma.
   Cure: Sunscreens and avoiding sun exposure can prevent melasma from becoming worse. Other treatment may include prescription creams to lighten the patches. Chemical peels and laser can also be used.

Pigment loss after skin damage(Partial)
   Sometimes, following an ulcer, blister, burn, or infection, the skin does not replace some of the pigment in that area.
   No treatment is necessary. Cosmetics can usually cover the blemish.

   Smooth, white patches in the skin, vitiligo is caused by the loss of pigment-producing cells in the skin (melanocytes). The white patches are very sensitive to the sun.
   There is no cure for vitiligo. Treatment may include covering smaller patches with long-lasting dyes, light-sensitive drugs, in addition to ultraviolet light therapy, corticosteroid creams, and depigmentation of the remaining skin.
clip Skin Depigmentation
May 10, 2018, 07:23:54 AM by Charles Dickson
Skin Depigmentation

What Is Skin depigmentation? Skin depigmentation is the lightning of the skin, or loss of pigment. Skin depigmentation or depigmentation of the skin can be caused by a number of local and systemic conditions. The pigment loss can be categorise into four

    Partial (injury to the skin)
    Complete (caused by vitiligo)
    Temporary (from tinea versicolor)
    Permanent (from albinism)

Skin depigmentation
Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of skin. Others affect your entire body.
xx How to make your face pimples free
August 16, 2016, 07:04:38 AM by Isaac Adeniran
Pimples, medically known as Acne Vulgaris, is the most common skin problem which affects virtually 100 per cent teenagers in many forms. Nowadays, a good number of adults in their late 20s or 30s are faced with the same problem. A good knowledge and a few lifestyle tweaks can help one prevent acne or reducing its severity.

Keep your scalp oil free and try to shampoo often. As acne occurs due to excessive oil production by the glands over our faces and head. We must also avoid oiling our hair as that would lead to dandruff and acne precipitation or exacerbation.
Wash the face gently at least twice daily. This will not only reduce the oiliness of your face, it will also keep it clean and this helps combats the bacteria which causes acne production. For this, a non-oily soap or face wash should be used. Remember to stroke your face gently while washing as excessive scrubbing might increase the inflammation.
Try to use minimal cosmetics over the face as this blocks facial pores and causes acne. Always use ‘non comedogenic’ products or consult a dermatologist when in doubt.
Avoid getting waxing on the face or massages or facials with oily comedogenic products. Always ensure which products are being used and ask your doctor if they are suitable for acne prone skin.
Avoid smoking; smoking is directly linked with the intensity of acne.
If you wish to make dietary changes, you can reduce the intake of dairy products such as milk products which have been known to increas acne production. This must only be done after consulting a dietician.
A strict NO to the use of steroid creams over the face when you have acne! Seek the advice of a dermatologist before applying any cream recommended by your friend or family as they may contain steroids.
Avoid stress and stay happy, as a happy face is a beautiful face.
Acne maybe associated with hormonal problems in the body, the most important being PCOS, in which acne usually occurs with weight gain, irregular menstrual cycles and thick facial hair. If you experience such symptoms, you must visit a dermatologist right away as this would need weight reduction and some medicines to treat the disorder.
If despite these recommendations; your acne persists, then  you must visit a dermatologist and do not use any product without consulting a skin specialist. In this era of technology, you can also make use of phone reminders and other devices to help you remember these simple hacks.

Dr. Manjul Aggarwal, Consultant with Department of Dermatology, Fortis Hospital, Shalimar Bagh, India
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