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Eye Care

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clip Lazy eye (amblyopia)-causes and treatment
May 13, 2019, 03:58:15 PM by Charles Dickson
Lazy eye (amblyopia)-causes and treatment





Lazy eye (amblyopia) is reduced vision in one eye caused by abnormal visual development early in life. The weaker — or lazy — eye often wanders inward or outward.Amblyopia generally develops from birth up to age 7 years. It is the leading cause of decreased vision in one eye among children. Rarely, lazy eye affects both eyes.Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent long-term problems with your child's vision. Lazy eye can usually be corrected with glasses or contact lenses, or eye patches. Sometimes surgery is required.   SymptomsSigns and symptoms of lazy eye include:
  • An eye that wanders inward or outward
  • Eyes that appear to not work together
  • Poor depth perception
  • Squinting or shutting an eye
  • Head tilting
  • Abnormal results of vision screening tests
Sometimes lazy eye is not evident without an eye exam.When to see a doctorSee your child's doctor if you notice his or her eye wandering at any time after the first few weeks of life. A vision check is especially important if there's a family history of crossed eyes, childhood cataracts or other eye conditions.For all children, a complete eye exam is recommended between ages 3 and 5.Request an Appointment at Mayo ClinicCausesLazy eye develops because of abnormal visual experience early in life that changes the nerve pathways between a thin layer of tissue (retina) at the back of the eye and the brain. The weaker eye receives fewer visual signals. Eventually, the ability of the eyes to work together decreases, and the brain suppresses or ignores input from the weaker eye.Anything that blurs a child's vision or causes the eyes to cross or turn out may result in lazy eye. Common causes of the condition include:
  • Muscle imbalance (strabismus). The most common cause of lazy eye is an imbalance in the muscles that position the eyes. This imbalance can cause the eyes to cross in or turn out, and prevents them from tracking together in a coordinated way.
  • Difference in sharpness of vision between the eyes (refractive anisometropia). A significant difference between the prescriptions in each eye — often due to farsightedness but sometimes to nearsightedness or an imperfection on the surface of the eye called astigmatism — can result in lazy eye. Glasses or contact lenses are typically used to correct these refractive problems. In some children lazy eye is caused by a combination of strabismus and refractive problems.
  • Deprivation. Any problem with one eye — such as a cloudy area in the lens (cataract) — can deprive a child of clear vision in that eye. Deprivation amblyopia in infancy requires urgent treatment to prevent permanent vision loss. Deprivation amblyopia often results in the most severe amblyopia.
Risk factorsFactors associated with an increased risk of lazy eye include:
  • Premature birth
  • Small size at birth
  • Family history of lazy eye
  • Developmental disabilities
ComplicationsUntreated, lazy eye can cause permanent vision loss. Lazy eye is the cause of permanent vision loss in 2.9 percent of adults.
clip Red eye causes
May 11, 2019, 05:46:30 PM by Charles Dickson
Red eye causes



Red eye is a common problem that can affect one or both eyes. The redness associated with red eye comes from blood vessels on the surface of your eye that are expanded (dilated) due to some form of irritation or infection.



Causes
   
clip Eye twitching causes
May 10, 2019, 10:29:42 PM by Charles Dickson
Eye twitching causes



Eye twitching, benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm are terms often used to refer to any of three separate conditions. Each type of twitch or spasm has a different cause.Eyelid twitching (myokymia) affects only the eyelid. This type of twitch or spasm is very common and happens to most people at one time or another. It can involve either the upper or lower lid, but usually only one eye at a time. The eye twitching can range from barely noticeable to bothersome. The twitching usually goes away within a short time but may recur over a few hours, days or longer.
Benign essential blepharospasm starts out as increased blinking of both eyes and may progress to the eyelids being squeezed shut. This type of eye twitching is relatively uncommon but can be extremely severe, affecting all aspects of life.
Hemifacial spasm involves twitches of muscles on one side of the face, including the eyelid.

Causes   Eyelid twitching may be triggered by:
  • Alcohol intake
  • Bright light
  • Caffeine excess
  • Fatigue
  • Irritation of the eye surface or inner eyelids
  • Smoking
  • Stress
  • Wind or air pollution
Benign essential blepharospasm is a movement disorder (dystonia) of the muscles around the eye. No one knows exactly what causes it, but researchers believe it may be caused by a malfunction of certain cells in the nervous system called basal ganglia.
Hemifacial spasm is typically caused by a small artery that irritates a facial nerve.
Other conditions that sometimes include eyelid twitching as a sign include:Very rarely, eye twitching may be a sign of certain brain and nervous system disorders. When it is, it's almost always accompanied by other signs and symptoms. Brain and nervous system disorders that can cause eye twitching include:Eye twitching may be a side effect of drugs, particularly medication used for Parkinson's disease. And eye twitching is sometimes the earliest sign of a chronic movement disorder, especially if other facial spasms develop too.
clip Eye pain causes
May 10, 2019, 10:10:43 PM by Charles Dickson
Eye pain causes




Eye pain can occur on the surface of your eye or within your eye's deeper structures. Severe eye pain — especially accompanied by any degree of vision loss — may be a signal that you have a serious medical condition. Seek immediate medical attention.
Eye pain that's on the surface of your eye might be described as itching, burning or shooting pain. Surface eye pain is often related to a foreign object in your eye, an eye infection, or anything that irritates or inflames the membrane covering the surface of your eye.
You might describe eye pain originating deeper within your eye as throbbing or aching.

Causes
   
clip Epiphora - Watery eyes causes
May 10, 2019, 08:11:47 PM by Isaac Adeniran
Epiphora - Watery eyes causes



Definition   
Watery eyes (epiphora) tear persistently or excessively. Depending on the cause, watery eyes may clear up on their own. Self-care measures at home can help treat watery eyes, particularly if caused by inflammation or dry eyesCauses   Watery eyes can be due to many factors and conditions.In infants, persistent watery eyes, often with some matter, are commonly the result of blocked tear ducts. The tear ducts don't produce tears, but rather carry away tears, similar to how a storm drain carries away rainwater. Tears normally drain into your nose through tiny openings (puncta) in the inner part of the lids near the nose. In babies, the tear duct may not be fully open and functioning for the first several months of life.
In older adults, persistent watery eyes may occur as the aging skin of the eyelids sags away from the eyeball, allowing tears to accumulate and flow out.
Sometimes, excess tear production may cause watery eyes as well.
Allergies or viral infections (conjunctivitis), as well as any kind of inflammation, may cause watery eyes for a few days or so.Medication causes
  • Chemotherapy drugs
  • Epinephrine
  • Eyedrops, especially echothiophate iodide and pilocarpine
Common causesOther causes
clip Dark circles under eyes cause
May 10, 2019, 07:31:40 PM by Isaac Adeniran
Dark circles under eyes-causes

Dark circles under your eyes generally implies that the darkening is primarily below both eyes. This is different from bruising caused by trauma or redness and swelling caused by infection around only one eye.

Causes

Fatigue is the most common cause of dark circles under your eyes. Sometimes, what appear to be dark circles under your eyes may merely be shadows cast by puffy eyelids or hollows under your eyes that develop as a normal part of aging.
Some of the most common causes of true under-eye circles are:
  • Allergies
  • Atopic dermatitis (eczema)
  • Contact dermatitis
  • Fatigue
  • Hay fever
  • Heredity
  • Pigmentation irregularities, which can be a particular concern for people of African or Asian ancestry
  • Rubbing or scratching your eyes
  • Sun exposure, which prompts your body to produce more melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color
  • Thinning skin and loss of fat and collagen that comes with aging, which can make the reddish-blue blood vessels under your eyes more obvious
xx Treatment for Glaucoma
May 12, 2018, 02:56:07 PM by Charles Dickson
Treatment for Glaucoma

    Take these into consideration
    Avoid use of caffeine. Drinking beverages with large amounts of caffeine may increase your eye pressure.
    Take water regularly:  Drink only moderate amounts of fluids at any given time during the course of a day.
    Sleep with your head elevated. Using a wedge pillow that keeps your head slightly raised, about 20 degrees, has been shown to reduce intraocular eye pressure while you sleep.
    Take prescribed medicine. Using your eyedrops or other medications as prescribed can help you get the best possible result from your treatment. Be sure to use the drops exactly as prescribed. Otherwise, your optic nerve damage could get even worse.

Glaucoma can be treated with

    Contact lenses
    Eye drops
    Laser surgery
    Pills
    Traditional surgery or a combination of these methods


Contact lenses
If you usually wear contact lenses and have been prescribed eye drops, you may need to stop wearing your lenses and wear glasses instead.
This is because medication in the eye drops can build up in the lenses and may harm your eyes. You should discuss this with healthcare professionals treating you.
Glaucoma Home Remedies/Home Cure
Vitamin C supplementation is safer and far more effective than traditional drug treatment for glaucoma. At 1,500 mg daily, using this vitamin has led to almost-normal eye pressure levels. In an acute situation, Vitamin C can be given intravenously to affect a greater initial pressure reduction.
The goal of any treatment is to prevent loss of vision, as vision loss from glaucoma is irreversible.
Complications of Glaucoma

    Elevated IOP
    Hyphema
    Severe pain
    If left untreated the patient may lose vision, and even become blind.
xx Glaucoma Who is at risk and prevention
May 12, 2018, 02:55:07 PM by Charles Dickson
Who is at risk?
People with more risk of developing glaucoma include people who:

    Are over age 40
    Are of African or Hispanic heritage
    Are farsighted or nearsighted
    Are of Asian heritage
    Have high eye pressure
    Have family members with glaucoma
    Have had an eye injury
    Have corneas that are thin in the center or
    Have diabetes, migraines, high blood pressure, poor blood circulation or other health problems affecting the whole body.

Talk with an ophthalmologist about your risk for getting glaucoma. People with more than one of these risk factors have an even higher risk of glaucoma.

How to Prevent Glaucoma
Timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment are keys to glaucoma prevention
If you notice that the way you are seen long or short distance is reducing, go for eye test for early detection.
That’s a pretty close analogy of what happens when glaucoma runs its course. You’ll start losing your peripheral vision first, one eye at a time, and you likely won’t even realize that it’s happening until much of the damage has been done. The damage is irreversible! But the process can be stopped with early detection and treatment.

clip How to diagnose Glaucoma
May 12, 2018, 02:51:43 PM by Charles Dickson
How to diagnose Glaucoma

Glaucoma can be treated with these techniques:

    Prescription eye drops
    Laser surgery
    Microsurgery




 Eye drops for glaucoma: These either reduce the formation of fluid in the front of the eye or increase its outflow. Side effects of glaucoma drops may include allergy, redness of the eyes, brief stinging, blurred vision, and irritated eyes. Some glaucoma drugs may affect the heart and lungs. Be sure to tell your doctor about any other medications you are currently taking or are allergic to.
Laser surgery for glaucoma: Laser surgery for glaucoma slightly increases the outflow of the fluid from the eye in open-angle glaucoma or eliminates fluid blockage in angle-closure glaucoma. Types of laser surgery for glaucoma include trabeculoplasty, in which a laser is used to pull open the trabecular meshwork drainage area; iridotomy, in which a tiny hole is made in the iris, allowing the fluid to flow more freely; and cyclophotocoagulation, in which a laser beam treats areas of the middle layer of the eye, reducing the production of fluid.
Microsurgery for glaucoma:  In an operation called a trabeculectomy, a new channel is created to drain the fluid, thereby reducing intraocular pressure that causes glaucoma. Sometimes this form of glaucoma surgery fails and must be redone. For some patients, a glaucoma implant is the best option. Other complications of microsurgery for glaucoma include some temporary or permanent loss of vision, as well as bleeding or infection.
clip Symptoms and Signs of Glaucoma
May 12, 2018, 02:48:08 PM by Charles Dickson



Symptoms and Signs of Glaucoma

    Blurred or hazy vision.
    Halos around lights(That look like appearance of rainbow-colored circles around bright lights)
    Nausea and vomiting
    Reddening of the eye.
    Severe eye pain.
    Sudden onset of visual disturbance, often in low light.
        Vision loss
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