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Children and Adolescent Health

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clip Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children
May 13, 2019, 04:32:53 PM by Isaac Adeniran
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children



Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition that affects millions of children and often continues into adulthood. ADHD includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty sustaining attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior.Children with ADHD also may struggle with low self-esteem, troubled relationships and poor performance in school. Symptoms sometimes lessen with age. However, some people never completely outgrow their ADHD symptoms. But they can learn strategies to be successful.
While treatment won't cure ADHD, it can help a great deal with symptoms. Treatment typically involves medications and behavioral interventions. Early diagnosis and treatment can make a big difference in outcome.


     SymptomsThe primary features of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder include inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior. ADHD symptoms start before age 12, and in some children, they're noticeable as early as 3 years of age. ADHD symptoms can be mild, moderate or severe, and they may continue into adulthood.ADHD occurs more often in males than in females, and behaviors can be different in boys and girls. For example, boys may be more hyperactive and girls may tend to be quietly inattentive.
There are three subtypes of ADHD:
 
  • Predominantly inattentive. The majority of symptoms fall under inattention.
  • Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive. The majority of symptoms are hyperactive and impulsive.
  • Combined. The most common type in the U.S., this is a mix of inattentive symptoms and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms.
InattentionA child who shows a pattern of inattention may often:
 
  • Fail to pay close attention to details or make careless mistakes in schoolwork
  • Have trouble staying focused in tasks or play
  • Appear not to listen, even when spoken to directly
  • Have difficulty following through on instructions and fail to finish schoolwork or chores
  • Have trouble organizing tasks and activities
  • Avoid or dislike tasks that require focused mental effort, such as homework
  • Lose items needed for tasks or activities, for example, toys, school assignments, pencils
  • Be easily distracted
  • Forget to do some daily activities, such as forgetting to do chores
Hyperactivity and impulsivityA child who shows a pattern of hyperactive and impulsive symptoms may often:
 
  • Fidget with or tap his or her hands or feet, or squirm in the seat
  • Have difficulty staying seated in the classroom or in other situations
  • Be on the go, in constant motion
  • Run around or climb in situations when it's not appropriate
  • Have trouble playing or doing an activity quietly
  • Talk too much
  • Blurt out answers, interrupting the questioner
  • Have difficulty waiting for his or her turn
  • Interrupt or intrude on others' conversations, games or activities
Additional issuesIn addition, a child with ADHD has:
 
  • Symptoms for at least six months
  • Several symptoms that negatively affect school, home life or relationships in more than one setting, such as at home and at school
  • Behaviors that aren't normal for children the same age who don't have ADHD
Normal behavior vs. ADHDMost healthy children are inattentive, hyperactive or impulsive at one time or another. It's normal for preschoolers to have short attention spans and be unable to stick with one activity for long. Even in older children and teenagers, attention span often depends on the level of interest.
The same is true of hyperactivity. Young children are naturally energetic — they often are still full of energy long after they've worn their parents out. In addition, some children just naturally have a higher activity level than others do. Children should never be classified as having ADHD just because they're different from their friends or siblings.
Children who have problems in school but get along well at home or with friends are likely struggling with something other than ADHD. The same is true of children who are hyperactive or inattentive at home, but whose schoolwork and friendships remain unaffected.
 When to see a doctorIf you're concerned that your child shows signs of ADHD, see your pediatrician or family doctor. Your doctor may refer you to a specialist, but it's important to have a medical evaluation first to check for other possible causes of your child's difficulties.

CausesWhile the exact cause of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not clear, research efforts continue. Factors that may be involved in the development of ADHD include:
  • Genetics. ADHD can run in families, and studies indicate that genes may play a role.
  • Environment. Certain environmental factors, such as lead exposure, may increase risk.
  • Development. Problems with the central nervous system at key moments in development may play a role.
Risk factorsRisk factors for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may include:
 
  • Blood relatives, such as a parent or sibling, with ADHD or another mental health disorder
  • Exposure to environmental toxins — such as lead, found mainly in paint and pipes in older buildings
  • Maternal drug use, alcohol use or smoking during pregnancy
  • Premature birth
Although sugar is a popular suspect in causing hyperactivity, there's no reliable proof of this. Many issues in childhood can lead to difficulty sustaining attention, but that's not the same as ADHD.
 ComplicationsAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder can make life difficult for children. Children with ADHD:
 
  • Often struggle in the classroom, which can lead to academic failure and judgment by other children and adults
  • Tend to have more accidents and injuries of all kinds than do children who don't have ADHD
  • Tend to have poor self-esteem
  • Are more likely to have trouble interacting with and being accepted by peers and adults
  • Are at increased risk of alcohol and drug abuse and other delinquent behavior
Coexisting conditionsADHD doesn't cause other psychological or developmental problems. However, children with ADHD are more likely than others to also have conditions such as:
 
  • Learning disabilities, including problems with understanding and communicating
  • Anxiety disorders, which may cause overwhelming worry, nervousness
  • Depression, which frequently occurs in children with ADHD
  • Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, characterized by irritability and problems tolerating frustration
  • Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), generally defined as a pattern of negative, defiant and hostile behavior toward authority figures
  • Conduct disorder, marked by antisocial behavior such as stealing, fighting, destroying property, and harming people or animals
  • Bipolar disorder, which includes depression as well as manic behavior
  • Tourette syndrome, a neurological disorder characterized by repetitive muscle or vocal tics
PreventionTo help reduce your child's risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder:
 
  • During pregnancy, avoid anything that could harm fetal development. For example, don't drink alcohol, use recreational drugs or smoke cigarettes.
  • Protect your child from exposure to pollutants and toxins, including cigarette smoke and lead paint (found in some old buildings).
  • Limit screen time. Although still unproved, it may be prudent for children to avoid excessive exposure to TV and video games in the first five years of life.
If your child has ADHD, to help reduce problems or complications:
 
  • Be consistent, set limits and have clear consequences for your child's behavior.
  • Put together a daily routine for your child with clear expectations that include such things as bedtime, morning time, mealtime, simple chores and TV.
  • Avoid multitasking yourself when talking with your child, make eye contact when giving instructions, and set aside a few minutes every day to praise your child.
  • Work with teachers and caregivers to identify problems early, to decrease the impact of the condition on your child's life.
clip Sex education: Talking to your teen about sex
May 10, 2019, 07:33:12 AM by Charles Dickson
Sex education: Talking to your teen about sex



Sex education is offered in many schools, but don't count on classroom instruction alone. Sex education needs to happen at home, too. Here's help talking to your teen about sex.


Sex education basics may be covered in health class, but your teen might not hear — or understand — everything he or she needs to know to make tough choices about sex. That's where you come in.

Awkward as it may be, sex education is a parent's responsibility. By reinforcing and supplementing what your teen learns in school, you can set the stage for a lifetime of healthy sexuality.
Breaking the ice

Sex is a staple subject of news, entertainment and advertising. It's often hard to avoid this ever-present topic. But when parents and teens need to talk, it's not always so easy. If you wait for the perfect moment, you might miss the best opportunities.

Instead, think of sex education as an ongoing conversation. Here are some ideas to help you get started — and keep the discussion going.

    Seize the moment. When a TV program or music video raises issues about responsible sexual behavior, use it as a springboard for discussion. Remember that everyday moments — such as riding in the car or putting away groceries — sometimes offer the best opportunities to talk.
    Be honest. If you're uncomfortable, say so — but explain that it's important to keep talking. If you don't know how to answer your teen's questions, offer to find the answers or look them up together.
    Be direct. Clearly state your feelings about specific issues, such as oral sex and intercourse. Present the risks objectively, including emotional pain, sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy. Explain that oral sex isn't a risk-free alternative to intercourse.
    Consider your teen's point of view. Don't lecture your teen or rely on scare tactics to discourage sexual activity. Instead, listen carefully. Understand your teen's pressures, challenges and concerns.
    Move beyond the facts. Your teen needs accurate information about sex — but it's just as important to talk about feelings, attitudes and values. Examine questions of ethics and responsibility in the context of your personal or religious beliefs.
    Invite more discussion. Let your teen know that it's OK to talk with you about sex whenever he or she has questions or concerns. Reward questions by saying, "I'm glad you came to me."

Addressing tough topics

Sex education for teens includes abstinence, date rape, homosexuality and other tough topics. Be prepared for questions like these:

    How will I know I'm ready for sex? Various factors — peer pressure, curiosity and loneliness, to name a few — steer some teenagers into early sexual activity. But there's no rush. Remind your teen that it's OK to wait. Sex is an adult behavior. In the meantime, there are many other ways to express affection — intimate talks, long walks, holding hands, listening to music, dancing, kissing, touching and hugging.

    What if my boyfriend or girlfriend wants to have sex, but I don't? Explain that no one should have sex out of a sense of obligation or fear. Any form of forced sex is rape, whether the perpetrator is a stranger or someone your teen has been dating.

    Impress upon your teen that no always means no. Emphasize that alcohol and drugs impair judgment and reduce inhibitions, leading to situations in which date rape is more likely to occur.

    What if I think I'm gay? Many teens wonder at some point whether they're gay or bisexual. Help your teen understand that he or she is just beginning to explore sexual attraction. These feelings may change as time goes on. And if they don't, that's perfectly fine.

    A negative response to your teen's questions or assertions that he or she is gay can have negative consequences. Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) youth who lack family acceptance are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections, substance abuse, depression and attempted suicide. Family acceptance can protect against these risks.

    Above all, let your teen know that you love him or her unconditionally. Praise your teen for sharing his or her feelings. Listen more than you speak.

Healthy vs. unhealthy relationships

Teens and adults are often unaware of how regularly dating violence occurs, so it is important to get the facts and share them with your teen. Parents also should be alert to warning signs that a teen may be a victim of dating violence, such as:

    Alcohol or drug use
    Avoidance of friends and social events
    Excusing a dating partner's behavior
    Fearfulness around a dating partner
    Loss of interest in school or activities that were once enjoyable
    Suspicious bruises, scratches or other injuries

Teens who are in abusive relationships are at increased risk of long-term consequences, including poor academic performance, binge drinking and suicide attempts. The emotional impact of unhealthy relationships may also be lasting, increasing the likelihood of future unhappy, violent relationships.

The lessons teens learn today about respect, healthy relationships, and what is right or wrong will carry over into their future relationships. It's important to talk with your teen now about what does and doesn't constitute a healthy relationship.
Responding to behavior

If your teen becomes sexually active — whether you think he or she is ready or not — it may be more important than ever to keep the conversation going. State your feelings openly and honestly. Remind your teen that you expect him or her to take sex and the associated responsibilities seriously.

Stress the importance of safe sex, and make sure your teen understands how to get and use contraception. You might talk about keeping a sexual relationship exclusive, not only as a matter of trust and respect but also to reduce the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Also set and enforce reasonable boundaries, such as curfews and rules about visits from friends of the opposite sex.

Your teen's doctor can help, too. A routine checkup can give your teen the opportunity to address sexual activity and other behaviors in a supportive, confidential atmosphere — as well as learn about contraception and safe sex.

The doctor may also stress the importance of routine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, for both girls and boys, to help prevent genital warts as well as cancers of the cervix, anus, mouth and throat, and penis.
Looking ahead

With your support, your teen can emerge into a sexually responsible adult. Be honest and speak from the heart. If your teen doesn't seem interested in what you have to say about sex, say it anyway. He or she is probably listening.
clip Parenting skills tips for raising teens
May 10, 2019, 07:28:07 AM by Charles Dickson
Parenting skills tips for raising teens



Helping an adolescent become a caring, independent and responsible adult is no small task. Understand the parenting skills you need to help guide your teen.
By Mayo Clinic Staff

Adolescence can be a confusing time of change for teens and parents alike. But while these years can be difficult, there's plenty you can do to nurture your teen and encourage responsible behavior. Use these parenting skills to deal with the challenges of raising a teen.
Show your love

Positive attention is a must for teens. Spend time with your teen to show him or her that you care. Listen to your teen when he or she talks, and respect your teen's feelings. Don't assume that your teen knows how much you love him or her.

If your teen doesn't seem interested in bonding, keep trying. Regularly eating meals together might be a good way to connect. Better yet, invite your teen to prepare the meal with you. On days when you're having trouble talking to your teen, consider each doing your own thing in the same space. Being near each other could lead to the start of a conversation.

Keep in mind that unconditional love doesn't mean unconditional approval. You can discipline your teen while showing that you won't withdraw your love based on his or her behavior. If you're pointing out something that your teen could do better, keep your criticism specific to the behavior rather than making personal statements about your teen.
Set reasonable expectations

Teens tend to live up or down to parental expectations, so set your expectations high. But instead of focusing on achievements, such as getting straight A's, expect your teen to be kind, considerate, respectful, honest and generous.

When it comes to day-to-day accomplishments, remember that teens gain confidence through success, which can prepare them for the next challenge. As your teen takes on more difficult tasks, instead of setting the bar yourself, support him or her to determine what he or she can handle. If your teen comes up short, react supportively and encourage him or her to recover and try again. It's more important to praise your teen's effort than the end result.
Set rules and consequences

Discipline is about teaching, not punishing or controlling your teen. To encourage your teen to behave well, discuss what behavior is acceptable and unacceptable at home, at school and elsewhere. Create fair and appropriate consequences for how your teen behaves. When setting consequences:

    Avoid ultimatums. Your teen might interpret an ultimatum as a challenge.
    Be clear and concise. Rather than telling your teen not to stay out late, set a specific curfew. Keep your rules short and to the point. Make consequences immediate and linked to your teen's choices or actions.
    Explain your decisions. Your teen might be more likely to comply with a rule when he or she understands its purpose. There might be less to rebel against when your teen knows that a limit is being imposed for his or her safety.
    Be reasonable. Avoid setting rules your teen can't possibly follow. A chronically messy teen might have trouble immediately maintaining a spotless bedroom.
    Be flexible. As your teen demonstrates more responsibility, grant him or her more freedom. If your teen shows poor judgment, impose more restrictions.

When enforcing consequences, reprimand your teen's behavior — not your teen. Avoid lecturing your teen about his or her shortcomings and the abstract, far-off consequences, which can motivate your teen to prove you wrong. Don't use a sarcastic, demeaning or disrespectful tone. Embarrassing your teen can instill a sense of shame, put him or her in a defensive position, and distract him or her from reflecting on what he or she has done wrong. Before you speak, consider asking yourself if what you're about to say is true, necessary and nonjudgmental.
Prioritize rules

While it's important to consistently enforce your rules, you can occasionally make exceptions when it comes to matters such as homework habits and bedtime. Prioritizing rules will give you and your teen a chance to practice negotiating and compromising.

However, consider beforehand how far you're willing to bend. Don't negotiate when it comes to restrictions imposed for your teen's safety, such as substance abuse, sexual activity and reckless driving. Make sure your teen knows that you won't tolerate tobacco, alcohol or other drug use.
Set a positive example

Teens learn how to behave by watching their parents. Your actions generally speak louder than your words. Show your teen how to cope with stress in positive ways and be resilient. Be a good model and your teen will likely follow your lead.

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clip How To Help your teen avoid OTC drugs Abuse
May 10, 2019, 07:06:56 AM by Charles Dickson
How To Help your teen avoid OTC drugs Abuse



Teen drug abuse can have a major impact on your child's life. Find out how to help your teen make healthy choices and avoid using drugs.
By Mayo Clinic Staff

Teens who experiment with drugs put their health and safety at risk. Help prevent teen drug abuse by talking to your teen about the consequences of using drugs and the importance of making healthy choices.
Why teens use or misuse drugs

Various factors can contribute to teen drug use and misuse. First-time use often occurs in social settings with easily accessible substances, such as alcohol and cigarettes.

Continued use might be a result of insecurities or a desire for social acceptance. Teens may feel indestructible and might not consider the consequences of their actions, leading them to take dangerous risks with drugs.

Common risk factors for teen drug abuse include:

    A family history of substance abuse
    A mental or behavioral health condition, such as depression, anxiety or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Impulsive or risk-taking behavior
    A history of traumatic events, such as experiencing a car accident or being a victim of abuse
    Low self-esteem or feelings of social rejection

Consequences of teen drug abuse

Negative consequences of teen drug abuse might include:

    Drug dependence. Teens who misuse drugs are at increased risk of serious drug use later in life.
    Poor judgment. Teenage drug use is associated with poor judgment in social and personal interactions.
    Sexual activity. Drug use is associated with high-risk sexual activity, unsafe sex and unplanned pregnancy.
    Mental health disorders. Drug use can complicate or increase the risk of mental health disorders, such as depression and anxiety.
    Impaired driving. Driving under the influence of any drug can impair a driver's motor skills, putting the driver, passengers and others on the road at risk.
    Changes in school performance. Substance use can result in a decline in academic performance.

Health effects of drugs

Drug use can result in drug addiction, serious impairment, illness and death. Health risks of commonly used drugs include the following:

    Cocaine — Risk of heart attack, stroke and seizures
    Ecstasy — Risk of liver failure and heart failure
    Inhalants — Risk of damage to heart, lungs, liver and kidneys from long-term use
    Marijuana — Risk of impairment in memory, learning, problem solving and concentration; risk of psychosis — such as schizophrenia, hallucination or paranoia — later in life associated with early and frequent use
    Methamphetamine — Risk of psychotic behaviors from long-term use or high doses
    Opioids — Risk of respiratory distress or death from overdose
    Electronic cigarettes (vaping) — Exposure to harmful substances similar to exposure from cigarette smoking; risk of nicotine dependence

Talking about teen drug use

You'll likely have multiple conversations with your teen about drug and alcohol use. Choose times when you're unlikely to be interrupted — and set aside phones. It's also important to know when not to have a conversation, such as when you're angry with your child, you aren't prepared to answer questions, or your child is drunk or high.

To talk to your teen about drugs:

    Ask your teen's views. Avoid lectures. Instead, listen to your teen's opinions and questions about drugs. Assure your teen that he or she can be honest with you.
    Discuss reasons not to use drugs. Avoid scare tactics. Emphasize how drug use can affect the things that are important to your teen — such as sports, driving, health and appearance.
    Consider media messages. Social media, television programs, movies and songs can glamorize or trivialize drug use. Talk about what your teen sees and hears.
    Discuss ways to resist peer pressure. Brainstorm with your teen about how to turn down offers of drugs.
    Be ready to discuss your own drug use. Think about how you'll respond if your teen asks about your own drug use. If you chose not to use drugs, explain why. If you did use drugs, share what the experience taught you.

Other preventive strategies

Consider other strategies to prevent teen drug abuse:

    Know your teen's activities. Pay attention to your teen's whereabouts. Find out what adult-supervised activities your teen is interested in and encourage him or her to get involved.
    Establish rules and consequences. Explain your family rules, such as leaving a party where drug use occurs and not riding in a car with a driver who's been using drugs. If your teen breaks the rules, consistently enforce consequences.
    Know your teen's friends. If your teen's friends use drugs, your teen might feel pressure to experiment, too.
    Keep track of prescription drugs. Take an inventory of all prescription and over-the-counter medications in your home.
    Provide support. Offer praise and encouragement when your teen succeeds. A strong bond between you and your teen might help prevent your teen from using drugs.
    Set a good example. If you drink, do so in moderation. Use prescription drugs as directed. Don't use illicit drugs.

Recognizing the warning signs of teen drug abuse

Be aware of possible red flags, such as:

    Sudden or extreme change in friends, eating habits, sleeping patterns, physical appearance, coordination or school performance
    Irresponsible behavior, poor judgment and general lack of interest
    Breaking rules or withdrawing from the family
    The presence of medicine containers, despite a lack of illness, or drug paraphernalia in your teen's room

Seeking help for teen drug abuse

If you suspect or know that your teen is experimenting with or misusing drugs:

    Talk to him or her. You can never intervene too early. Casual drug use can turn into excessive use or addiction and cause accidents, legal trouble and health problems.
    Encourage honesty. Speak calmly and express that you are coming from a place of concern. Share specific details to back up your suspicion. Verify any claims he or she makes.
    Focus on the behavior, not the person. Emphasize that drug use is dangerous but that doesn't mean your teen is a bad person.
    Check in regularly. Spend more time with your teen, know your teen's whereabouts, and ask questions after he or she returns home.
    Get professional help. If you think your teen is involved in significant drug use, contact a doctor, counselor or other health care provider for help.

It's never too soon to start talking to your teen about drug abuse. The conversations you have today can help your teen make healthy choices in the future.
xx How to Treat Eating Disorders in Children
April 19, 2019, 02:45:04 PM by Isaac Adeniran
How to Treat Eating Disorders in Children

The number of children suffering from eating disorders are on the rise. Change in eating habits, stress, depression, low self-esteem, lack of control in life, anger and loneliness are some of the causes of eating disorders. Some genetic disorders could also be a reason for eating disorders.

Eating disorders may lead to several health conditions which may arise in case of abnormal eating patterns. The common modes of eating disorders in children are as follows:

Anorexia: Children who are affected with anorexia think they are very overweight in spite of actually being very thin. Anorexia affected children consume less than a thousand calories per day.
The treatment for anorexia nervosa generally includes a mix of mental treatment and regulated weight gain program. The best ways to deal with anorexia are:

    Psychological Treatment: Different psychological treatments can be used to cure anorexia of different stages in children. They include cognitive analytic therapy, Cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy and focal psychodynamic therapy. A family's response is also an important psychological factor. Proper encouragement and effort should be provided.
    Weight gain program: A weight gain program will guide an anorexic child to improve his diet habits and slowly gain weight. A patient is monitored carefully; the traits are recognized and a diet pattern is given, which is ideal for him.

Bulimia: Bulimia nervosa is another category of eating disorder. The main characteristic of this disorder is overeating in the highest level. Binge eating is observed, followed by attempts by the affected individual to lose weight. A bulimia affected child is constantly trapped in the cycle of overeating and then thinks about losing weight.

In spite of not liking the idea of binge eating for the fear of getting obese, a child affected by bulimia cannot follow this and continues binge eating. Later, they take extreme measures to lose weight. The primary methods to deal with bulimia are:

    Psychotherapy: Psychotherapy or talk therapy includes examining the bulimia and related issues with an expert. It has been proven that psychotherapy restricts the symptoms of bulimia. The three modes of psychotherapy include, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Family-based therapy and Interpersonal psychotherapy
    Medications: Medicines such as anti-depressants can be taken by bulimia patients along with psychotherapy. Prozac is one medicine that can be taken.
    Proper diet plan: For bulimia affected children, having a proper balanced diet is very important. A diet expert should be consulted, who will make the most essential food pattern for the child. Undertaking a weight-loss program is also vital.

Binge eating: Similar to bulimia, binge eating includes out of control eating in huge quantities in a short period of time. The food is not vomited out, and binge eating causes obesity. Intense emotions are experienced in binge eaters. Binge eating in children can be treated with behavioral therapy, medications and psychotherapy.
Eating disorders are quite common in children who are yet to gain maturity.

These disorders may lead to severe health consequences, which may affect a child physically and psychologically. A proper treatment is also essential to deal with these disorders. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.

clip 8 Infant Basics you should know
April 11, 2019, 07:28:04 AM by Isaac Adeniran
 8 Infant Basics you should know



Some physical conditions and issues are very common during the first couple of weeks after birth. Many are normal, and the infant's caregivers can deal with them if they occur. Mostly, it is a matter of the caregivers learning about what is normal for their infant and getting comfortable with the new routine in the household.

New parents and caregivers often have questions about several aspects of their infant's health and well-being.

Bowel Movements
Care of the Umbilicus
Colic
Diaper Rash
Spitting Up/Vomiting
Teething
Urination
Jaundice
Bowel Movements
Infants' bowel movements go through many changes in color and consistency, even within the first few days after birth. It's important to keep track of your infant's bowel movements. Some things to look for include:

Color. A newborn's first bowel movements usually consist of a thick, black or dark green substance called meconium (pronounced mi-KOH-nee-uhm). After the meconium is passed, the stools ("poop") will turn yellow-green. The stools of breastfed infants look mustard-yellow with seed-like particles.
Consistency. Until the infant starts to eat solid foods, the consistency of the stool can range from very soft to loose and runny. Formula-fed infants usually have stools that are tan or yellow in color and firmer than those of a breastfed infant. Whether your baby is breastfed or bottle-fed, hard or very dry stools may be a sign of dehydration.
Frequency. Infants who are eating solid foods can become constipated if they eat too many constipating foods, such as cereal or cow's milk, before their system can handle them. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) do not recommend cow's milk for babies under 12 months.
Also, because an infant's stools are normally soft and a little runny, it's not always easy to tell when a young infant has mild diarrhea. The main signs are a sudden increase in the number of bowel movements (more than one per feeding) and watery stools.

Diarrhea can be a sign of intestinal infection, or it may be caused by a change in diet. If the infant is breastfeeding, diarrhea can result from a change in the mother's diet. The main concern with diarrhea is the possibility that dehydration can develop. If fever is also present and your infant is less than 2 months old, you should call your health care provider. If the infant is over 2 months old and the fever lasts more than a day, check the infant's urine output and rectal temperature and consult a health care provider. Make sure the infant continues to feed often.

Starting around the age of 3 to 6 weeks, some breastfed babies have only one bowel movement a week. This is normal because breast milk leaves very little solid waste to pass through the digestive system. Formula-fed infants should have at least one bowel movement a day. If a formula-fed infant has fewer bowel movements than this and appears to be straining because of hard stools, constipation may be the cause. Check with your health care provider if there are any changes in or problems with your infant's bowel movements.

Care of the Umbilicus
The umbilical cord delivers oxygen and nutrients to the fetus while it is in the womb. After delivery, the umbilical cord is cut. The remaining part of the cord dries and falls off in about 10 days, forming the belly button (navel).

Follow your health care provider's recommendations about how to care for the umbilicus. This care might include:

Keeping the area clean and dry.
Folding down the top of the diaper to expose the umbilicus to the air.
Cleaning the umbilicus gently with a baby wipe or with a cotton swab dipped in rubbing alcohol.
Contact your health care provider if there is pus or redness.1

Colic
Many infants are fussy in the evenings, but if the crying does not stop and gets worse throughout the day or night, it may be caused by colic (pronounced KOL-ik). According to the AAP, about one-fifth of all infants develop colic, usually starting between 2 and 4 weeks of age. They may cry inconsolably or scream, extend or pull up their legs, and pass gas. Their stomachs may be enlarged. The crying spells can occur anytime, although they often get worse in the early evening.

The colic will likely improve or disappear by the age of 3 or 4 months. There is no definite explanation for why some infants get colic. Sometimes, in breastfeeding babies, colic is a sign of sensitivity to a food in the mother's diet. Rarely, colic is caused by sensitivity to milk protein in formula. Colic could be a sign of a medical problem, such as a hernia or some type of illness.

If your infant shows signs of colic, the first step is to consult with your health care provider. Sometimes changing the diet of a breastfeeding mother or changing the formula for bottle-fed infants can help. Some infants seem to be soothed by being held, rocked, or wrapped snugly in a blanket. Some like a pacifier.2,3

Diaper Rash
A rash on the skin covered by a diaper is quite common. It is usually caused by irritation of the skin from being in contact with stool and urine. It can get worse during bouts of diarrhea. Diaper rash usually can be prevented by frequent diaper changes.

Your health care provider can recommend care for diaper rash, which may include:

Rinsing the skin with warm water, using soap only after bowel movements. Because baby wipes may leave a film of bacteria on the skin, their use is often not recommended.
Exposing the rash to air as much as possible by loosely attaching the diaper at the waist, or removing the diaper entirely during naps.
Laying the infant on a towel to absorb urine.
Caregivers should contact a health care provider if the rash is not better in 3 days or if the child becomes worse.4

Spitting Up/Vomiting
Spitting up is a common occurrence for newborns and is usually not a sign of a more serious problem. After feeding, try to keep the infant calm and in an upright position for a little while. Keep a burp towel handy, just in case. Contact your health care provider immediately if your infant5:

Is not gaining weight
Is spitting up so forcefully that stomach contents shoot out of the infant's mouth
Spits up green or yellow liquid, blood, or a substance that looks like coffee grounds
Has blood in the stool
Shows other signs of illness, such as fever, diarrhea, or difficulty with breathing
Some parents worry that their infant will spit up and choke if they are put to sleep on their backs, but this is not the case. Healthy infants naturally swallow or cough up fluids—it's a reflex all people have. Where the opening to the windpipe is located in the body makes it unlikely for fluids to cause choking. Babies may actually clear such fluids better when on their backs.

The NICHD's Safe to Sleep® Campaign (formerly the Back to Sleep campaign) recommends placing infants to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Since the recommendation for back sleeping began in 1992, the number of fatal choking deaths has not increased. In fact, in most of the few reported cases of fatal choking, an infant was sleeping on his or her stomach.1

Teething
Although newborns usually have no visible teeth, baby teeth begin to appear generally about 6 months after birth. During the first few years, all 20 baby teeth will push through the gums, and most children will have their full set of these teeth in place by age 3.

An infant's front four teeth usually appear first, at about 6 months of age, although some children don't get their first tooth until 12 or 14 months. As their teeth break through the gums, some infants become fussy, sleepless, and irritable; lose their appetite; or drool more than usual. If an infant has a fever or diarrhea while teething or continues to be cranky and uncomfortable, contact your baby's health care provider.6

The FDA does not recommend gum-numbing medications with an ingredient called benzocaine because they can cause a potentially fatal condition in young children. Talk to your health care provider for advice on using these products for your teething infant.7 Other potential forms of relief for your infant include a chilled teething ring or gently rubbing the child's gums with a clean finger.7

Urination
Infants urinate as often as every 1 to 3 hours or as infrequently as every 4 to 6 hours. In case of sickness or if the weather is very hot, urine output might drop by half and still be normal.

Urination should never be painful. If you notice any signs of distress while your infant is urinating, notify your child's health care provider because this could be a sign of infection or some other problem in the urinary tract. In a healthy child, urine is light to dark yellow in color. (The darker the color, the more concentrated the urine; the urine is more concentrated when the child is not drinking much liquid.) The presence of blood in the urine or a bloody spot on the diaper is not normal and should prompt a call to the health care provider. If this bleeding occurs with other symptoms, such as abdominal pain or bleeding in other areas, immediate medical attention is needed.8

Jaundice
Jaundice (pronounced JAWN-diss) can cause an infant's skin, eyes, and mouth to turn a yellowish color. The yellow color is caused by a buildup of bilirubin, a substance that is produced in the body during the normal process of breaking down old red blood cells and forming new ones.

Normally the liver removes bilirubin from the body. But, for many infants, in the first few days after birth, the liver is not yet working at its full power. As a result, the level of bilirubin in the blood gets too high, causing the infant's color to become slightly yellow—this is jaundice.

Although jaundice is common and usually not serious, in some cases, high levels of bilirubin could cause brain injury. All infants with jaundice need to be seen by a health care provider.

Many infants need no treatment. Their livers start to catch up quickly and begin to remove bilirubin normally, usually within a few days after birth. For some infants, health care providers prescribe phototherapy—a treatment using a special lamp—to help break down the bilirubin in their bodies.

If your infant has jaundice, ask your health care provider how long the child's jaundice should last after leaving the hospital, and schedule a follow-up appointment as directed. If the jaundice lasts longer than expected, or an infant who did not have jaundice starts to turn yellowish after going home, a health care provider should be consulted right away. If you intend to get discharged early, particularly within 48 hours of birth, your infant's jaundice may peak later in the first week.

It is almost impossible to say how severe the jaundice level is by just looking at the baby's skin, especially for infants of color. Therefore, make every effort to keep follow-up appointments so the health care provider can check the level of jaundice with a simple blood test.


 
clip Common Infant and Newborn Problems
April 11, 2019, 07:18:30 AM by Isaac Adeniran
 Common Infant and Newborn Problems
Common Infant and Newborn Problems

It is hard when your baby is sick. Common health problems in babies include colds, coughs, fevers, and vomiting. Babies also commonly have skin problems, like diaper rash or cradle cap.

Many of these problems are not serious. It is important to know how to help your sick baby, and to know the warning signs for more serious problems. Trust your intuition - if you are worried about your baby, call your health care provider right away.


Common Conditions in Newborns (American Academy of Pediatrics)
Also in Spanish
What Are Some of the Basics of Infant Health? From the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)
Also in Spanish
Treatments and Therapies


Treatments and Therapies has been expanded.
Diaper Rash: How to Treat (American Academy of Dermatology)
Do Not Give Infants Cough and Cold Products Designed for Older Children (Food and Drug Administration)
How to Give Your Child Medicine (American Academy of Family Physicians)


Treating Vomiting (American Academy of Pediatrics)
Also in Spanish
When to Give Kids Medicine for Coughs and Colds (Food and Drug Administration)

Specifics

Specifics has been expanded.
Baby Acne (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Also in Spanish
Colic (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Also in Spanish
Colic (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Common Cold in Babies: Symptoms and Causes (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Also in Spanish
Coughing (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation)


Diaper Rash (Nemours Foundation)
Diaper Rash (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Ear Infections (American Academy of Family Physicians)


Facts about Jaundice and Kernicterus (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature (Nemours Foundation)
Also in Spanish
First Aid: Diaper Rash (Nemours Foundation)
Flat Head Syndrome (Positional Plagiocephaly) (Nemours Foundation)
Also in Spanish
Jaundice in Healthy Newborns (Nemours Foundation)


Milia (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Oral Thrush (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation)


Plagiocephaly (American Academy of Family Physicians)

Tear-Duct Obstruction and Surgery (Nemours Foundation)

Vomiting (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation)
Your Child's Vision (Nemours Foundation)

Your Colicky Baby (Nemours Foundation)


Candidiasis, Diaper Dermatitis (Logical Images)
Dermatitis, Diaper Irritant (Logical Images)
Milia (Logical Images)
Miliaria Rubra (Logical Images)
Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot) (Logical Images)
Health Check Tools
Collapse Section
Health Check Tools has been expanded.
Elimination Problems in Infants and Children (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Also in Spanish
Feeding Problems in Infants and Children (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Also in Spanish
Fever in Infants and Children (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Also in Spanish
Mouth Problems in Infants and Children (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Also in Spanish
Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Also in Spanish
Clinical Trials
Collapse Section
Clinical Trials has been expanded.
ClinicalTrials.gov: Diaper Rash From the National Institutes of Health (National Institutes of Health)
ClinicalTrials.gov: Infant, Newborn, Diseases From the National Institutes of Health (National Institutes of Health)
ClinicalTrials.gov: Infantile Colic From the National Institutes of Health (National Institutes of Health)
Journal Articles
References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
Expand Section
Find an Expert
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Find an Expert has been expanded.
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development From the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)
Also in Spanish
Find a Pediatrician or Pediatric Specialist (American Academy of Pediatrics)
Also in Spanish
KidsHealth (Nemours Foundation)
Patient Handouts
Collapse Section
Patient Handouts has been expanded.
Colic and crying - self-care (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
Crying - excessive (0-6 months) (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
Diaper rash (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
Diarrhea in infants (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
Newborn jaundice - discharge (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
Rash - child under 2 years (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
When your baby or infant has a fever (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
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Common Infant and Newborn Problems
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MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA
Colic and crying - self-care
Crying - excessive (0-6 months)
Diaper rash
Diarrhea in infants
Diastasis recti
Ear tag
Epstein pearls
Erythema toxicum
Exchange transfusion
Exchange transfusion - slideshow
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Related Health Topics
Baby Health Checkup
Dandruff, Cradle Cap, and Other Scalp Conditions
Infant and Newborn Care
Infant and Newborn Development
Infant and Newborn Nutrition
Medicines and Children
Reflux in Infants
Uncommon Infant and Newborn Problems
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xx Treatment for Measles
May 12, 2018, 04:01:44 PM by Charles Dickson
Treatment for Measles

There is no specific measles treatment. If there are no complications the doctor will recommend plenty of rest and normal measures to control the fever and prevent dehydration (drink fluids). Symptoms will usually go away within 7 to 10 days.
If your child has measles, the following measures may help:

    Fever - if the temperature is high try to keep the child cool, but make sure he/she is not cold. Tylenol (Paracetamol, Acetaminophen) or ibuprofen is effective in controlling fever, as well as aches and pain. Children under 16 should not be given aspirin. Check with your doctor about acetaminophen dosage - too much can harm the child, especially the liver.

    Smoking - do not let anyone smoke near the child with measles.
    Photophobia - as the child may be painfully sensitive to light, keeping the lights dim or the room darkened may help. Sunglasses may also help.

    Conjunctivitis - if there is crustiness around the eyes gently clean with damp cotton wool.
    Cough - cough medicines will not relieve the cough. Making the room more humid by placing a bowl of water may help the cough. If the child is over twelve a glass of warm water with a teaspoon of lemon juice and two teaspoons of honey may help. Do not give honey to babies.

    Dehydration - make sure the child is hydrated. If the child has a fever he/she can become dehydrated more quickly. Encourage the child to drink plenty of fluids.

    Isolation - while children are contagious they should be kept away from school and should not return to activities that involve human interaction. Non-immunized people who have never had measles should be kept out of the house.
    Vitamin A supplements - studies have shown that Vitamin A supplements significantly help prevent complications caused by measles. Supplements are recommended for children with vitamin A deficiency and children under the age of two who have severe measles. Vitamin A deficiency is virtually non-existent in developed countries, but fairly common in much of the developing world.

As measles is caused by a virus antibiotics will not have any effect on it. However, sometimes antibiotics may be prescribed for any infections that may develop.

Measles Home Remedies/Home Cure

If you or your child has measles, the first thing that you need to do is to keep your doctor informed as you monitor the progress of the disease and watch for complications. Also try to do these:

    Avoid reading or watching television if light from a reading lamp or from the television is difficult.
     Drink plenty of water, fruit juice and herbal tea to replace fluids lost by fever and sweating.
    Get rest and avoid busy activities.
    If you or your child finds bright light difficult, as do many people with measles, keep the lights low or wear sunglasses.
    Use a humidifier to relieve cough and sore throat.
xx Prevent of Measles
May 12, 2018, 03:59:44 PM by Charles Dickson
How to Prevent Measles

    Get the measles vaccine:

  People who cannot show that they were vaccinated as children and who have never had measles should be vaccinated.
Infants 6-11 months of age should have 1 dose of measles vaccine if traveling internationally.
Children in the United States routinely receive measles vaccination at 12-15 months of age.
Infants vaccinated before or 12 months of age should be revaccinated on or after the first birthday with 2 doses, separated by at least 28 days.
Adolescents and adults who have not had measles or have not been vaccinated should get 2 doses, separated by at least 28 days.
Two doses of MMR (measles, mumps & rubella) vaccine is nearly 100% effective at preventing measles.

    Immune suppressed - should be excluded until 14 days after the first day of the appearance of rash in the last case.
xx How to diagnose Measles
May 12, 2018, 03:57:55 PM by Charles Dickson
How to diagnose Measles

Your doctor will usually be able to diagnose measles from the combination of your symptoms, especially the characteristic rash and the small spots inside your mouth. However, a simple blood or saliva test is usually done to confirm the diagnosis.
Complications of measles
Measles is the fifth leading cause of death and sickness in children worldwide, reports the Better Health Channel.

    Blindness
    Bronchitis
    Decrease in blood platelets
    Decrease in blood platelets
    Ear infection
    Miscarriage or preterm labor
    Severe diarrhea

When to call the Doctor

Call the doctor immediately if you suspect that your child has measles. Also, it's important to get medical care when you notice that if your child is having any of these:
· A fit (convulsion). Most important: remember that measles, a once common disease, is preventable through routine childhood immunization.
· Breathing Difficulties
· Drowsiness
What is the danger of getting Measles while pregnant?
If a woman contracts measles while she is pregnant, she may have a miscarriage, a stillbirth, or a preterm delivery. But for German measles which also known as rubella virus this has risk of having birth defects
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