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Offline Isaac Adeniran

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What Is Depression?
« on: May 03, 2018, 11:15:21 PM »


What  Is Depression?

Depression is a common but serious mood  disorder. It causes severe symptoms that affect how you feel, think, and handle  daily activities, such as sleeping, eating, or working.
 It is more than just a low mood – its a  serious condition that affects your physical and mental health.
 Depression is intense feelings of sadness and  other symptoms, like losing interest in things you enjoy, may last for a while.  Depression is a medical illness. It affects how you feel about yourself and  makes life more difficult to manage from day to day.
 It is  a common and debilitating mood disorder that is affecting more and more people  around the world. It is a serious illness caused by changes in brain chemistry.

Types  of Depression

Some forms of depression are slightly  different, or they may develop under unique circumstances, such as:
   
Persistent depressive disorder (also  called dysthymia) is a depressed mood that lasts for at least two years. A person diagnosed with persistent depressive disorder may have episodes of major  depression along with periods of less severe symptoms, but symptoms must last  for two years to be considered persistent depressive disorder.
 
 Perinatal depression
is much more serious  than the Persistent (relatively mild depressive and anxiety symptoms that typically clear within two weeks after delivery) that many women experience  after giving birth. Women with perinatal depression experience full-blown major  depression during pregnancy or after delivery (postpartum depression). The  feelings of extreme sadness, anxiety, and exhaustion that accompany perinatal  depression may make it difficult for these new mothers to complete daily care  activities for themselves and/or for their babies.
 
 Psychotic  depression occurs when a person has severe depression plus some form of  psychosis, such as having disturbing false fixed beliefs (delusions) or hearing  or seeing upsetting things that others cannot hear or see (hallucinations). The  psychotic symptoms typically have a depressive “theme,” such as delusions of  guilt, poverty, or illness.
 
 Seasonal  affective disorder is characterized by the onset of depression during the  winter months, when there is less natural sunlight. This depression generally  lifts during spring and summer.
 Winter depression, typically accompanied by  social withdrawal, increased sleep, and weight gain, predictably returns every  year in seasonal affective disorder.
 
 Bipolar  disorder is different from depression, but it is included in this list is  because someone with bipolar disorder experiences episodes of extremely low  moods that meet the criteria for major depression (called “bipolar  depression”). But a person with bipolar disorder also experiences extreme high  – euphoric or irritable – moods called “mania” or a less severe form called  “hypomania.”
Classification  of Depression
  • Mild depression
  • Mild to moderate depression
  • Moderate to severe depression

Who  is at risk?
 Depression does not discriminate. Men and  women of every age, educational level, and social and economic background  suffer from depression.
Causes  of Depression
 Depression can be due to a number of  factors including stresses which can range from mild to severe, combined with  vulnerability or predisposition to depression that can result from biological,  genetic or psychological factors.
 Each type of depression is associated with  different mixtures of causes. For psychotic or melancholic depression, physical  and biological factors are relevant. In contrast, for non-melancholic depression, the role of personality and stressful life events are important.
Although scientists agree that depression  is a brain disorder, the debate continues about exact causes. Many factors may  contribute to the onset of depression, including genetic characteristics,  changes in hormone levels, certain medical illnesses, stress, grief, or  substance abuse. Any of these factors alone or in combination can bring about the specific changes in brain chemistry that lead to the many symptoms of  depression, bipolar disorder and related conditions.



Symptoms/Signs  of Depression

Behaviour
  • Not going out anymore
  • Not getting things done at work/school
  • Not doing usual enjoyable activities
  • Relying on alcohol and sedatives
  • Unable to concentrate
  • Withdrawing from close family and friends

         Feelings
  • Disappointed
  • Guilty
  • Frustrated
  • Indecisive
  • Irritable
  • Lacking in confidence
  • Overwhelmed
  • Miserable
  • Sad
  • Unhappy

Physical
  • Churning gut
  • Headaches and muscle pains
  • Loss or change of appetite
  • Significant weight loss or gain
  • Sleep problems
  • Sick and run down
  • Tired all the time


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What Is Depression?
« on: May 03, 2018, 11:15:21 PM »

Offline Isaac Adeniran

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Re: What Is Depression?
« Reply #1 on: May 03, 2018, 11:19:15 PM »
Thoughts
  • I am a failure.
  • It is my fault.
  • Nothing good ever happens to me.
  • I am worthless.
  • Life is not worth living.
  • People would be better off without me.

Note:
 To be diagnosed with  depression, the symptoms must be present for at least two weeks.

How  to diagnose Depression

Your doctor can usually tell if you have  depression by asking you specific questions and doing a physical exam. Your  doctor may, however, ask for lab tests to rule out other diagnoses. Your doctor  will likely do blood tests to check for medical conditions that may cause depressive symptoms.

How to Prevent Depression
  • Avoid alcohol and drugs: Alcohol is a depressant  that can alter your mood without you even realizing it. What’s more, those at  risk for depression are also at greater risk of alcohol abuse and developing alcoholism. To be safe in the short and long term, just avoid it.
  • Do not blame yourself
  • Exercise regularly
  • Get the right amount of sleep
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Focus on having a positive attitude
  • Join a support group
  • Monitor your overall health
  • Taking Care of Your Mind
  • Think of what you’re grateful for every day
  • Volunteer: Getting out of your head and into the  zone of helping others helps keep you busy, your mind buzzing with positivity, and helps you feel good about yourself and the world around you. Volunteering cultivates  a positive attitude and helps better the world. It is a win-win
  • Work on your passions to find an outlet  and to cultivate your self-esteem
  • Regulate your blood sugar

NaijaSky

Re: What Is Depression?
« Reply #1 on: May 03, 2018, 11:19:15 PM »

Offline Isaac Adeniran

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Re: What Is Depression?
« Reply #2 on: May 03, 2018, 11:22:00 PM »
Treatment  for Depression

Three of the more common methods used in  depression treatment include cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal  therapy, and psychodynamic therapy. Often, a blended approach is used.

Mild  depression:

Wait and see – if you're diagnosed with mild  depression, your depression may improve by itself. In this case, you'll simply  be seen again by your GP after two weeks to monitor your progress. This is known as watchful waiting.
 
 Exercise:  there is evidence that exercise may help depression and it is one of the main  treatments if you have mild depression. Your GP may refer you to a qualified  fitness trainer for an exercise scheme, or you can find out more about starting  exercise here. Read more about exercise for depression.
 
Self-help  groups
:  talking through your  feelings can be helpful. You could talk either to a friend or relative, or you can ask your GP to suggest a local self-help group. Find out more about depression support groups. Your GP may also recommend self-help books and  online cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).

Mild  to moderate depression

Talking therapy – if you have mild  depression that isn't improving, or you have moderate depression, your GP may  recommend a talking treatment (a type of psychotherapy). There are different  types of talking therapy for depression, including cognitive behavioural  therapy (CBT) and counselling. Your GP can refer you for talking treatment or in some parts of the country you might be able to refer yourself.

Moderate  to severe depression

   Antidepressants  – antidepressants are tablets that treat the symptoms of depression. There are  almost 30 different kinds of antidepressant. They have to be prescribed by a  doctor, usually for depression that is moderate or severe.
 Combination  therapy – your GP may recommend that you take a course of antidepressants plus  talking therapy, particularly if your depression is quite severe. A combination  of an antidepressant and CBT usually works better than having just one of these  treatments.
 Mental  health teams – if you have severe depression, you may be referred to a mental  health team made up of psychologists, psychiatrists, specialist nurses and  occupational therapists. These teams often provide intensive specialist talking  treatments as well as prescribed medication.
 

NaijaSky

Re: What Is Depression?
« Reply #2 on: May 03, 2018, 11:22:00 PM »

Offline Isaac Adeniran

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Re: What Is Depression?
« Reply #3 on: May 03, 2018, 11:25:12 PM »
Complications  of Depression
  • Alcohol or substance misuse
  • Anxiety, panic disorder or social phobia
  • Excess weight or obesity, which can lead to  heart disease and diabetes
  • Family conflicts, relationship difficulties, and  work or school problems
  • Premature death from other medical conditions
  • Pain and physical illness
  • Self-mutilation, such as cutting
  • Social isolation
  • Suicidal feelings, suicide attempts or suicide

NaijaSky

Re: What Is Depression?
« Reply #3 on: May 03, 2018, 11:25:12 PM »


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