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Woman Health

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clip WHAT DO YOU DO IF YOU HAVE UNPROTECTED SEX
June 12, 2019, 02:51:10 AM by Theresa
WHAT DO YOU DO IF YOU HAVE UNPROTECTED SEX



If you’re sexually active, it is important to know that practicing safe sex is the best way to go. Condoms are effective in that, not only do they reduce the chances of unwanted pregnancy, they also help to prevent the transmission of several different types of STIs.
The important thing to keep in mind is to not get swept away in the moment. When passions are flaring, take a minute, slow down and think about your options and the implications of unprotected sex. If either of you has a condom, use it or make sure your partner does. If you or your partner don’t have one, remember that other sexual practices which don’t involve penetration present a much lower risk.

What do you if you have unprotected sex?

If you couldn’t do all these and have unprotected sex, either through rape or your own negligence, do not panic. Listed below are the things to do;
What to do immediately after unprotected sex.

Go to the toilet - Put aside STI (the updated term for STD) and pregnancy worries and focus on what you can control, which is lowering your risk for UTIs. Urinary tract infections can occur in both sexes, but women tend to be much more susceptible than men, and up to 10 female UTI cases develop within 24 hours of sex. Visiting the toilet a short time after sex to urinate helps to flush out bacteria in the urethra, and reduce the risk of infection.

What to do 24-48 hours after unprotected sex.

If you’re not on any contraceptive plan, then take an emergency contraceptive pill. In these cases, and provided it is suitable for you, the morning after pill might be advisable. The efficacy of the emergency pill depends on mostly on how soon after unprotected sex you take it. Most pills need to be taken within 72 hours of intercourse. They work best when taken within 12 hours of unprotected sex, and are thought to be 80-90 percent effective at stopping pregnancy.

Another thing to do is see a medical professional immediately if you suspect you’ve been exposed to HIV. If your partner discloses to you that they have HIV, or have had an encounter with someone else who has the condition, then visit your doctor or local clinic as soon as possible. Those who have been exposed to the infection may be issued a post-exposure prophylaxis to prevent it from developing.

Get checked out if you notice unusual symptoms.For women, this includes unusual discharge—changes in volume, consistency (e.g., chunkier), or color (less clear, more white, or pinkish/bloody)—as well as unusual odor (fishy, yeasty) and itchiness or pain. Infections like UTIs, yeast infections, or bacterial vaginosis cause symptoms like this anywhere from 24 hours to a week after sex.
So if you notice anything such as a change in discharge (or in men, any sort of discharge at all), irritation or pain during urination, then these may be signs of an infection, and you should see a doctor.

What to do the week after unprotected sex.

Get tested for STIs.
Some STIs produce no symptoms at all, so it’s vital to be screened at your local clinic within 7 days of unprotected sex whether you notice symptoms or not. Where a bacterial infection is found to be present, a practitioner will issue an antibiotic to treat it. Further testing is necessary to ensure that the medication has cleared the infection, and this will typically be undertaken two weeks after treatment has been given.
During this period, avoid sexual intercourse until you’ve been cleared of all infections so that you don’t risk passing the infection on to someone else.

What to do if you miss your period after unprotected sex.

Get a pregnancy test. For this, you can make use of several home-testing kits available. Alternatively, you can wait until the first day following a missed period to administer it, to get an accurate result. For those who are unsure of when their period is due should wait until at least three weeks after unprotected sex to take the test.
What to do 3-6 months after unprotected sex.

Get another STI test. Infections like chlamydia and gonorrhoea may show up on a test within a few days but syphilis and hepatitis B can take up to 6 weeks to develop in the body, while HIV takes up to 3 months, so it’s important to get tested again following this period to make sure you’re clear.
clip 7 WAYS TO GET RID OF VAGINA ODOR
June 04, 2019, 03:41:34 PM by Theresa
7 WAYS TO GET RID OF VAGINA ODOR




Occasionally, you may need a little help getting rid of an odor. The following techniques may help you naturally eliminate unusual vagina odors:

1. Practice good hygiene

Clean the outside of your vagina regularly with a washcloth and mild soap. Loofahs may cause small tears and expose the area to possible infection. Cleansing will wash away dead skin, sweat, and dirt. Don’t use perfumed soaps or body washes. The scents and chemicals may upset your vagina’s natural pH. Bar soaps may be more gentle than body wash.

2. Use only exterior deodorizing products

If you want to use any sprays or perfumes, only use them on the outside of your vagina. Don’t insert them. They can upset your natural chemistry and lead to bigger problems.

3. Change your underwear

If you normally wear satin, silk, or polyester panties, make the switch to 100 percent cotton. Cotton is breathable and does an excellent job wicking away sweat and fluids from your body. Excess moisture can upset your natural bacteria levels.

4. Consider a pH product

Over-the-counter (OTC) products may be helpful for restoring your vagina’s natural pH. If you try one and the odor remains or grows worse, make an appointment with your doctor. You may need to use a different product or look for a stronger prescription alternative.

5. Try essential oils

This treatment has very little medical research to support it, but anecdotal evidence suggests tea tree oil, a type of essential oil, helps eliminate vaginal odor. This essential oil has natural antimicrobial and antifungal properties, which may help reduce and eliminate bacteria. First, mix a few drops of tea tree oil with water. Then, apply a drop or two to the outside of your vagina. Repeat this for three to five days. If symptoms don’t improve or worsen, discontinue use.

6. Soak in vinegar

Frequent hot baths and hot showers can upset your natural pH, but one type of bath may be useful. Pour a cup or two of apple cider vinegar into a warm bath and soak for 20 minutes. Vinegar may naturally reduce bacteria.

7. Prescription treatments

Prescription treatments can help eliminate underlying causes that are contributing to the odor. If your home or OTC treatments aren’t successful, it may be time to seek treatment from your doctor.
Unusual vaginal odor happens from time to time. Even when you’re taking good care of your body and your vagina, you may experience unfamiliar smells. What’s not normal, however, is persistent or strong odors.‬
The first question you should ask yourself if you consider your vaginal odor abnormal: What’s normal? Vaginas have natural odors and each woman’s odor is different. A healthy vagina’s typical scent may best be described as “musky” or “fleshy.” A menstrual cycle might cause a slightly “metallic” scent for a few days. Intercourse may change the smell temporarily.
Your vagina cleanses itself naturally. If you leave your vagina to its own devices, it can naturally maintain a healthy pH and keep unhealthy bacteria at bay. But if you notice a stark difference in your odor, then you may be experiencing a sign of a potential problem. Strong odors, itching and irritation, and unusual discharge are all signs you may have something other than just unusual vaginal odor.
If I may say, I'll say that the vaginal has its peculiar aroma which is attractive (especially to men). Anything odorous or offensive is not natural and it suggests an infection anyway.

PREVENTING VAGINAL YEAST INFECTIONS‬
Limit the amount of sugar and processed foods you consume.
Wear loose-fitting, cotton underwear.
Don't spend extended periods of time in wet clothes or bathing suits.
Only use antibiotics when necessary.


Vagina
clip BREAST CANCER IN WOMEN
May 28, 2019, 12:50:37 AM by Theresa
BREAST CANCER IN WOMEN




Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women. Most cases occur in women over the age of 50. If you notice any lump or change to your normal breast then you should see a doctor promptly. If breast cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, there is a good chance of a cure. In general, the more advanced the cancer (the more it has grown and spread), the less chance that treatment will be curative. However, treatment can often slow the progress of the cancer.

The breasts
Breast tissue is attached to muscle on the chest wall. A tail of breast tissue extends up into the armpit. The breasts contain:
Many lobules which are made up of glandular tissue. They produce milk after pregnancy.
Ducts. These are channels which take milk from the lobules to the nipple.
Fatty tissue and supporting connective tissue.
Blood vessels, lymph channels and nerves (like all other areas of the body). Many women find that their breasts become more lumpy and tender before periods. Breasts also alter their size and shape with increasing age, pregnancy, and with marked weight changes. What is important is that you get to know your own breasts – how they look and feel – and report any changes promptly to a doctor.

What is breast cancer?
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers. Around one in nine women develop breast cancer at some stage in their life. Most develop in women over the age of 50 but younger women are sometimes affected. Breast cancer develops from a cancerous cell which develops in the lining of a duct or lobule in one of the breasts. There are some subtypes of breast cancer which are important to know, as the treatment and outlook (prognosis) vary depending on the exact type of the cancer.

What causes breast cancer?
A cancerous tumor starts from one abnormal cell. The exact reason why a cell becomes cancerous is unclear. It is thought that something damages or alters certain genes in the cell. This makes the cell abnormal and multiplies out of control.

Risk factors
Although breast cancer can develop for no apparent reason, there are certain risk factors which increase the chance that breast cancer will develop. These include:
The risk of developing breast cancer roughly doubles for every 10 years of age. Most cases develop in women over the age of 50.
Location: The rate of breast cancer varies between countries. This may reflect genetic or environmental factors.
Family history. This means if you have close relatives who have or have had breast cancer. In particular, if they were aged under 50 when diagnosed.
If you have had a previous breast cancer.
Being childless, or if you had your first child after the age of thirty.
Not having breast-fed your children.
Early age of starting periods.
Chest being exposed to radiation.
Having a menopause over the age of 55.
Taking continuous combined hormone replacement therapy ( HRT) for several years (in women over 50 years), leading to a slightly increased risk.
Excess alcohol.
Breast cancer symptoms
A breast lump: The usual first symptom is a painless lump in the breast.
Other symptoms of breast cancer
Other symptoms which may be noticed in the affected breast include:
Changes in the size or shape of a breast.
Dimpling or thickening of some of the skin on a part of a breast.
The nipple becoming inverted (turning in).
Rarely, a discharge occurring from a nipple (which may be bloodstained).
A rare type of breast cancer, causing a rash around the nipple, which can look similar to a small patch of eczema.
Many women develop painful breasts (mastalgia) and this is not usually caused by cancer.
What is the treatment for breast cancer?
Treatment options which may be considered include surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Often a combination of two or more of these treatments is used.

Surgery
The types of operation which may be considered are:

Breast-conserving surgery.
This is often an option if the tumor is not too big. A lumpectomy (or wide local excision) is one type of operation where just the tumor and some surrounding breast tissue are removed. It is usual to have radiotherapy following this operation. This aims to kill any cancer cells which may have been left in the breast tissue.

Removal of the affected breast (mastectomy).
This may be necessary if there is a large tumor or a tumor in the middle of the breast. It is often possible to have breast reconstructive surgery to create a new breast following a mastectomy. This can often be done at the same time as the mastectomy, although it can also be done months or years later.

Radiotherapy
Radiotherapy is a treatment which uses high-energy beams of radiation which are focused on cancerous tissue. This kills cancer cells, or stops cancer cells from multiplying.

Hormone treatments
Some types of breast cancer are affected by the female hormones oestrogen and progesterone. These hormones stimulate the cancer cells to divide and multiply. Most oestrogen and progesterone are made by the ovaries. Treatments which reduce the level of these hormones, or prevent them from working, are commonly used in people with breast cancer.

Hormone treatment works best in women with hormone-responsive breast cancer, but they sometimes work in cancers classed as non-hormone-responsive.


Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is a treatment of cancer by using anti- cancer medicines which kill cancer cells, or stop them from multiplying. When chemotherapy is used in addition to surgery it is known as adjuvant chemotherapy.

Prevention
A lot of breast cancers are detected at an early stage, by breast screening. However, a small number are not. Some women may have developed breast cancer before they have their first mammogram and some may develop breast cancer between mammograms. All women of every age should be breast aware. That is, get to know how your breasts and nipples normally look and feel. Try to recognize any changes that occur before and after your periods. See your GP if you notice any changes, lumps or other abnormalities in your breasts or nipples. Don’t wait until your next scheduled screening appointment.
clip Vaginal atrophy causes and treatment
May 13, 2019, 04:40:15 PM by Charles Dickson
Vaginal atrophy causes and treatment



Vaginal atrophy (atrophic vaginitis) is thinning, drying and inflammation of the vaginal walls that may occur when your body has less estrogen. Vaginal atrophy occurs most often after menopause.For many women, vaginal atrophy not only makes intercourse painful but also leads to distressing urinary symptoms. Because the condition causes both vaginal and urinary symptoms, doctors use the term "genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM)" to describe vaginal atrophy and its accompanying symptoms.Simple, effective treatments for GSM are available. Reduced estrogen levels result in changes to your body, but it doesn't mean you have to live with the discomfort of GSM.   SymptomsGenitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) signs and symptoms may include:
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Vaginal burning
  • Vaginal discharge
  • Genital itching
  • Burning with urination
  • Urgency with urination
  • Frequent urination
  • Recurrent urinary tract infections
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Light bleeding after intercourse
  • Discomfort with intercourse
  • Decreased vaginal lubrication during sexual activity
  • Shortening and tightening of the vaginal canal
When to see a doctorMany postmenopausal women experience GSM. But few seek treatment. Women may be embarrassed to discuss their symptoms with their doctor and may resign themselves to living with these symptoms.Make an appointment with your doctor if you have any unexplained vaginal spotting or bleeding, unusual discharge, burning, or soreness.Also make an appointment to see your doctor if you experience painful intercourse that's not resolved by using a vaginal moisturizer (K-Y Liquibeads, Replens, Sliquid, others) or water-based lubricant (Astroglide, K-Y Jelly, Sliquid, others).Request an Appointment at Mayo ClinicCausesGenitourinary syndrome of menopause is caused by a decrease in estrogen production. Less estrogen makes your vaginal tissues thinner, drier, less elastic and more fragile.A drop in estrogen levels may occur:
  • After menopause
  • During the years leading up to menopause (perimenopause)
  • After surgical removal of both ovaries (surgical menopause)
  • During breast-feeding
  • While taking medications that can affect estrogen levels, such as some birth control pills
  • After pelvic radiation therapy for cancer
  • After chemotherapy for cancer
  • As a side effect of breast cancer hormonal treatment
GSM signs and symptoms may begin to bother you during the years leading up to menopause, or they may not become a problem until several years into menopause. Although the condition is common, not all menopausal women experience GSM. Regular sexual activity, with or without a partner, can help you maintain healthy vaginal tissues.Risk factorsCertain factors may contribute to GSM, such as:
  • Smoking. Cigarette smoking affects your blood circulation, and may lessen the flow of blood and oxygen to the vagina and other nearby areas. Smoking also reduces the effects of naturally occurring estrogens in your body.
  • No vaginal births. Researchers have observed that women who have never given birth vaginally are more likely to develop GSM symptoms than women who have had vaginal deliveries.
  • No sexual activity. Sexual activity, with or without a partner, increases blood flow and makes your vaginal tissues more elastic.
ComplicationsGenitourinary syndrome of menopause increases your risk of:
  • Vaginal infections. Changes in the acid balance of your vagina make vaginal infections more likely.
  • Urinary problems. Urinary changes associated with GSM can contribute to urinary problems. You might experience increased frequency or urgency of urination or burning with urination. Some women experience more urinary tract infections or urine leakage (incontinence).
PreventionRegular sexual activity, either with or without a partner, may help prevent genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Sexual activity increases blood flow to your vagina, which helps keep vaginal tissues healthy.
     
clip Amenorrhea causes and treatment
May 13, 2019, 04:14:25 PM by Charles Dickson
Amenorrhea causes and treatment



Amenorrhea (uh-men-o-REE-uh) is the absence of menstruation — one or more missed menstrual periods. Women who have missed at least three menstrual periods in a row have amenorrhea, as do girls who haven't begun menstruation by age 15.The most common cause of amenorrhea is pregnancy. Other causes of amenorrhea include problems with the reproductive organs or with the glands that help regulate hormone levels. Treatment of the underlying condition often resolves amenorrhea.
     SymptomsThe main sign of amenorrhea is the absence of menstrual periods. Depending on the cause of amenorrhea, you might experience other signs or symptoms along with the absence of periods, such as:
 
  • Milky nipple discharge
  • Hair loss
  • Headache
  • Vision changes
  • Excess facial hair
  • Pelvic pain
  • Acne
When to see a doctor Consult your doctor if you've missed at least three menstrual periods in a row, or if you've never had a menstrual period and you're age 15 or older.
 Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic Causes
  • Female reproductive organsFemale reproductive system
  Amenorrhea can occur for a variety of reasons. Some are normal during the course of a woman's life, while others may be a side effect of medication or a sign of a medical problem.
 Natural amenorrhea During the normal course of your life, you may experience amenorrhea for natural reasons, such as:
 
  • Pregnancy
  • Breast-feeding
  • Menopause
Contraceptives Some women who take birth control pills may not have periods. Even after stopping oral contraceptives, it may take some time before regular ovulation and menstruation return. Contraceptives that are injected or implanted also may cause amenorrhea, as can some types of intrauterine devices.
 Medications Certain medications can cause menstrual periods to stop, including some types of:
 
  • Antipsychotics
  • Cancer chemotherapy
  • Antidepressants
  • Blood pressure drugs
  • Allergy medications
Lifestyle factors Sometimes lifestyle factors contribute to amenorrhea, for instance:
 
  • Low body weight. Excessively low body weight — about 10 percent under normal weight — interrupts many hormonal functions in your body, potentially halting ovulation. Women who have an eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia, often stop having periods because of these abnormal hormonal changes.
  • Excessive exercise. Women who participate in activities that require rigorous training, such as ballet, may find their menstrual cycles interrupted. Several factors combine to contribute to the loss of periods in athletes, including low body fat, stress and high energy expenditure.
  • Stress. Mental stress can temporarily alter the functioning of your hypothalamus — an area of your brain that controls the hormones that regulate your menstrual cycle. Ovulation and menstruation may stop as a result. Regular menstrual periods usually resume after your stress decreases.
Hormonal imbalance Many types of medical problems can cause hormonal imbalance, including:
 
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS causes relatively high and sustained levels of hormones, rather than the fluctuating levels seen in the normal menstrual cycle.
  • Thyroid malfunction. An overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism) or underactive thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) can cause menstrual irregularities, including amenorrhea.
  • Pituitary tumor. A noncancerous (benign) tumor in your pituitary gland can interfere with the hormonal regulation of menstruation.
  • Premature menopause. Menopause usually begins around age 50. But, for some women, the ovarian supply of eggs diminishes before age 40, and menstruation stops.
Structural problems Problems with the sexual organs themselves also can cause amenorrhea. Examples include:
 
  • Uterine scarring. Asherman's syndrome, a condition in which scar tissue builds up in the lining of the uterus, can sometimes occur after a dilation and curettage (D&C), cesarean section or treatment for uterine fibroids. Uterine scarring prevents the normal buildup and shedding of the uterine lining.
  • Lack of reproductive organs. Sometimes problems arise during fetal development that lead to a girl being born without some major part of her reproductive system, such as her uterus, cervix or vagina. Because her reproductive system didn't develop normally, she can't have menstrual cycles.
  • Structural abnormality of the vagina. An obstruction of the vagina may prevent visible menstrual bleeding. A membrane or wall may be present in the vagina that blocks the outflow of blood from the uterus and cervix.
   Video: Ovulation   Risk factorsFactors that may increase your risk of amenorrhea may include:
 
  • Family history. If other women in your family have experienced amenorrhea, you may have inherited a predisposition for the problem.
  • Eating disorders. If you have an eating disorder, such as anorexia or bulimia, you are at higher risk of developing amenorrhea.
  • Athletic training. Rigorous athletic training can increase your risk of amenorrhea.
ComplicationsComplications of amenorrhea may include:
 
  • Infertility. If you don't ovulate and have menstrual periods, you can't become pregnant.
  • Osteoporosis. If your amenorrhea is caused by low estrogen levels, you may also be at risk of osteoporosis — a weakening of your bones.
clip Bartholin's cyst
May 11, 2019, 10:15:42 PM by Charles Dickson
 Bartholin's cyst



The Bartholin's (BAHR-toe-linz) glands are located on each side of the vaginal opening. These glands secrete fluid that helps lubricate the vagina.Sometimes the openings of these glands become obstructed, causing fluid to back up into the gland. The result is relatively painless swelling called a Bartholin's cyst. If the fluid within the cyst becomes infected, you may develop a collection of pus surrounded by inflamed tissue (abscess).A Bartholin's cyst or abscess is common. Treatment of a Bartholin's cyst depends on the size of the cyst, how painful the cyst is and whether the cyst is infected.Sometimes home treatment is all you need. In other cases, surgical drainage of the Bartholin's cyst is necessary. If an infection occurs, antibiotics may be helpful to treat the infected Bartholin's cyst.

     Symptoms

If you have a small, noninfected Bartholin's cyst, you may not notice it. If the cyst grows, you might feel a lump or mass near your vaginal opening. Although a cyst is usually painless, it can be tender.A full-blown infection of a Bartholin's cyst can occur in a matter of days. If the cyst becomes infected, you may experience:
 
  • A tender, painful lump near the vaginal opening
  • Discomfort while walking or sitting
  • Pain during intercourse
  • Fever
A Bartholin's cyst or abscess typically occurs on only one side of the vaginal opening.

When to see a doctor

Call your doctor if you have a painful lump near the opening of your vagina that doesn't improve after two or three days of self-care — for instance, soaking the area in warm water (sitz bath). If the pain is severe, make an appointment with your doctor right away.Also call your doctor promptly if you find a new lump near your vaginal opening and you're older than 40. Although rare, such a lump may be a sign of a more serious problem, such as cancer. Request an Appointment with a Doctor

Cause

sExperts believe that the cause of a Bartholin's cyst is a backup of fluid. Fluid may accumulate when the opening of the gland (duct) becomes obstructed, perhaps caused by infection or injury.A Bartholin's cyst can become infected, forming an abscess. A number of bacteria may cause the infection, including Escherichia coli (E. coli) and bacteria that cause sexually transmitted infections such as gonorrhea and chlamydia.
ComplicationsA Bartholin's cyst or abscess may recur and again require treatment.

Prevention

There's no way to prevent a Bartholin's cyst. However, safer sex practices — in particular, using condoms — and good hygiene habits may help to prevent infection of a cyst and the formation of an abscess.
clip Pelvic pain causes
May 11, 2019, 01:39:37 PM by Charles Dickson
Pelvic pain causes




Pelvic pain is pain in the lowest part of your abdomen and pelvis. In women, pelvic pain might refer to symptoms arising from the reproductive, urinary or digestive systems, or from musculoskeletal sources.

Depending on its source, pelvic pain can be dull or sharp; it might be constant or off and on (intermittent); and it might be mild, moderate or severe. Pelvic pain can sometimes radiate to your lower back, buttocks or thighs. Sometimes, you might notice pelvic pain only at certain times, such as when you urinate or during sexual activity.

Pelvic pain can occur suddenly, sharply and briefly (acute) or over the long term (chronic). Chronic pelvic pain refers to any constant or intermittent pelvic pain that has been present for six months or more.




Causes   Several types of diseases and conditions can cause pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain can result from more than one condition.Pelvic pain can arise from your digestive, reproductive or urinary system. Recently, doctors have recognized that some pelvic pain, particularly chronic pelvic pain, can also arise from muscles and connective tissue (ligaments) in the structures of the pelvic floor.Occasionally, pelvic pain might be caused by irritation of nerves in the pelvis.Female reproductive systemPelvic pain arising from the female reproductive system might be caused by conditions such as:Other causes in women or menExamples of other possible causes of pelvic pain — in women or men — include:
clip Nipple discharge causes
May 11, 2019, 01:14:10 PM by Charles Dickson
Nipple discharge causes




Nipple discharge refers to any fluid that seeps out of the nipple of the breast.
Nipple discharge in women who are not pregnant or breast-feeding may not be abnormal, but it's wise to have any unexpected nipple discharge evaluated by a doctor. Nipple discharge in men under any circumstances could be a problem and needs further evaluation.

One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either spontaneously or when you squeeze your nipples or breasts. A nipple discharge may look milky, or it may be clear, yellow, green, brown or bloody. Nonmilk discharge comes out of your nipple through the same nipple openings that carry milk. The consistency of nipple discharge can vary — it may be thick and sticky or thin and watery.


Causes
   Nipple discharge is a normal part of breast function during pregnancy or breast-feeding. It also may be associated with menstrual hormone changes and fibrocystic changes. The milky discharge after breast-feeding will normally affect both breasts and can continue for up to two or three years after stopping nursing.
A papilloma is a noncancerous (benign) tumor that can be associated with bloody discharge. It appears spontaneously and involves a single duct. Although the bloody discharge may resolve on its own, this situation requires evaluation with an ultrasound of the area behind the nipple and areola. If the ultrasound shows a lesion within a milk duct, you may need a biopsy to confirm that it's a papilloma or to exclude a cancer.Often, nipple discharge stems from a benign condition. However, breast cancer is a possibility, especially if:
  • You have a lump in your breast
  • Only one breast is affected
  • The discharge contains blood
  • The discharge is spontaneous and persistent
  • The discharge affects only a single duct
Possible causes of nipple discharge include:
clip Breast rash causes
May 10, 2019, 03:54:56 PM by Charles Dickson
Breast rash causes
A breast rash describes redness and irritation of the skin on your breast. A breast rash can also be itchy, scaly, painful or blistered.

Other terms used to describe a breast rash include dermatitis and hives.CausesMost breast rashes have the same causes as rashes occurring elsewhere on the body. Some rashes occur only on the breast.
Causes of rash that occur only on the breast may include:
General causes of rash that can affect any part of the body, including the breast, include:
clip Breast lumps causes
May 10, 2019, 03:45:22 PM by Charles Dickson
Breast lumps causes



A breast lump is a growth of tissue that develops within your breast. Different types of breast lumps can vary in the way they look and feel.

You might notice:

    A distinct lump with definite borders
    A firm, hard area within your breast
    A thickened, slightly more prominent area in your breast that's different from surrounding breast tissue
    Other breast changes, such as redness, dimpling or pitting of the skin
    One breast that's noticeably larger than the other
    Nipple changes, such as a nipple that's pulled inward or spontaneous fluid discharge from your nipple
    Persistent breast pain or tenderness, which might increase during your menstrual period

Sometimes, a breast lump is a sign of breast cancer. That's why you should seek prompt medical evaluation. Fortunately, however, most breast lumps result from noncancerous (benign) conditions.



Causes
   Breast lumps can be caused by:
  • Breast cancer
  • Breast cysts
  • Fibroadenoma
  • Fibrocystic breasts (lumpy or rope-like breast tissue)
  • Injury or trauma to the breast
  • Intraductal papilloma (a benign, wartlike growth in a milk duct)
  • Lipoma (a slow-growing, doughy mass that's usually harmless)
  • Mastitis (an infection in breast tissue that most commonly affects women who are breast-feeding)
  • Milk cyst (galactocele) — a milk-filled cyst that's usually harmless
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