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General Medicine

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clip Acute liver failure causes, treatment and prevention
May 13, 2019, 03:08:53 PM by Isaac Adeniran
Acute liver failure causes, treatment and prevention



Acute liver failure is loss of liver function that occurs rapidly — in days or weeks — usually in a person who has no pre-existing liver disease. Acute liver failure is less common than chronic liver failure, which develops more slowly.Acute liver failure, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, can cause serious complications, including excessive bleeding and increasing pressure in the brain. It's a medical emergency that requires hospitalization.
Depending on the cause, acute liver failure can sometimes be reversed with treatment. In many situations, though, a liver transplant may be the only cure.
     SymptomsSigns and symptoms of acute liver failure may include:
 
  • Yellowing of your skin and eyeballs (jaundice)
  • Pain in your upper right abdomen
  • Abdominal swelling
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • A general sense of feeling unwell (malaise)
  • Disorientation or confusion
  • Sleepiness
When to see a doctorAcute liver failure can develop quickly in an otherwise healthy person, and it is life-threatening. If you or someone you know suddenly develops a yellowing of the eyes or skin; tenderness in the upper abdomen; or any unusual changes in mental state, personality or behavior, seek medical attention right away.
 Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic CausesAcute liver failure occurs when liver cells are damaged significantly and are no longer able to function. Potential causes include:
 
  • Acetaminophen overdose. Taking too much acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United States. Acute liver failure can occur after one very large dose of acetaminophen, or after higher than recommended doses every day for several days.
    If you or someone you know has taken an overdose of acetaminophen, seek medical attention as quickly as possible. Don't wait for the signs of liver failure.
  • Prescription medications. Some prescription medications, including antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and anticonvulsants, can cause acute liver failure.
  • Herbal supplements. Herbal drugs and supplements, including kava, ephedra, skullcap and pennyroyal, have been linked to acute liver failure.
  • Hepatitis and other viruses. Hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis E can cause acute liver failure. Other viruses that can cause acute liver failure include Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus.
  • Toxins. Toxins that can cause acute liver failure include the poisonous wild mushroom Amanita phalloides, which is sometimes mistaken for one that is safe to eat. Carbon tetrachloride is another toxin that can cause acute liver failure. It is an industrial chemical found in refrigerants and solvents for waxes, varnishes and other materials.
  • Autoimmune disease. Liver failure can be caused by autoimmune hepatitis — a disease in which your immune system attacks liver cells, causing inflammation and injury.
  • Diseases of the veins in the liver. Vascular diseases, such as Budd-Chiari syndrome, can cause blockages in the veins of the liver and lead to acute liver failure.
  • Metabolic disease. Rare metabolic diseases, such as Wilson's disease and acute fatty liver of pregnancy, infrequently cause acute liver failure.
  • Cancer. Cancer that either begins in or spreads to your liver can cause your liver to fail.
  • Shock. Overwhelming infection (sepsis) and shock can severely impair blood flow to the liver, causing liver failure.
Many cases of acute liver failure have no apparent cause.
 ComplicationsAcute liver failure often causes complications, including:
 
  • Excessive fluid in the brain (cerebral edema). Too much fluid causes pressure to build up in your brain.
  • Bleeding and bleeding disorders. A failing liver cannot make enough clotting factors, which help blood to clot. Bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract is common with this condition. It may be difficult to control.
  • Infections. People with acute liver failure are more likely to develop infections, particularly in the blood and in the respiratory and urinary tracts.
  • Kidney failure. Kidney failure often occurs after following liver failure, especially if you had an acetaminophen overdose, which damages both your liver and your kidneys.
PreventionReduce your risk of acute liver failure by taking care of your liver.
 
  • Follow instructions on medications. If you take acetaminophen or other medications, check the package insert for the recommended dosage, and don't take more than that. If you already have liver disease, ask your doctor if it is safe to take any amount of acetaminophen.
  • Tell your doctor about all your medicines. Even over-the-counter and herbal medicines can interfere with prescription drugs you're taking.
  • Drink alcohol in moderation, if at all. Limit the amount of alcohol you drink to no more than one drink a day for women of all ages and men older than 65 and no more than two drinks a day for younger men.
  • Avoid risky behavior. Get help if you use illicit intravenous drugs. Don't share needles. Use condoms during sex. If you get tattoos or body piercings, make sure the shop you choose is clean and safe. Don't smoke.
  • Get vaccinated. If you have chronic liver disease, a history of any type of hepatitis infection or an increased risk of hepatitis, talk to your doctor about getting the hepatitis B vaccine. A vaccine also is available for hepatitis A.
  • Avoid contact with other people's blood and body fluids. Accidental needle sticks or improper cleanup of blood or body fluids can spread hepatitis viruses. Sharing razor blades or toothbrushes also can spread infection.
  • Don't eat wild mushrooms. It can be difficult to tell the difference between a poisonous mushroom and one that is safe to eat.
  • Take care with aerosol sprays. When you use an aerosol cleaner, make sure the room is ventilated, or wear a mask. Take similar protective measures when spraying insecticides, fungicides, paint and other toxic chemicals. Follow product instructions carefully.
  • Watch what gets on your skin. When using insecticides and other toxic chemicals, cover your skin with gloves, long sleeves, a hat and a mask.
  • Maintain a healthy weight. Obesity can cause a condition called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which may include fatty liver, hepatitis and cirrhosis.
clip Acute kidney failure-Causes, treatment and prevention
May 13, 2019, 02:53:51 PM by Charles Dickson
Acute kidney failure-Causes, treatment and prevention




Acute kidney failure occurs when your kidneys suddenly become unable to filter waste products from your blood. When your kidneys lose their filtering ability, dangerous levels of wastes may accumulate, and your blood's chemical makeup may get out of balance.Acute kidney failure — also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury — develops rapidly, usually in less than a few days. Acute kidney failure is most common in people who are already hospitalized, particularly in critically ill people who need intensive care.
Acute kidney failure can be fatal and requires intensive treatment. However, acute kidney failure may be reversible. If you're otherwise in good health, you may recover normal or nearly normal kidney function.
     SymptomsSigns and symptoms of acute kidney failure may include:
 
  • Decreased urine output, although occasionally urine output remains normal
  • Fluid retention, causing swelling in your legs, ankles or feet
  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Confusion
  • Nausea
  • Weakness
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Chest pain or pressure
  • Seizures or coma in severe cases
Sometimes acute kidney failure causes no signs or symptoms and is detected through lab tests done for another reason.
 When to see a doctorSee your doctor immediately or seek emergency care if you have signs or symptoms of acute kidney failure.
  CausesAcute kidney failure can occur when:
 
  • You have a condition that slows blood flow to your kidneys
  • You experience direct damage to your kidneys
  • Your kidneys' urine drainage tubes (ureters) become blocked and wastes can't leave your body through your urine
Impaired blood flow to the kidneysDiseases and conditions that may slow blood flow to the kidneys and lead to kidney injury include:
 
  • Blood or fluid loss
  • Blood pressure medications
  • Heart attack
  • Heart disease
  • Infection
  • Liver failure
  • Use of aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others), naproxen sodium (Aleve, others) or related drugs
  • Severe allergic reaction (anaphylaxis)
  • Severe burns
  • Severe dehydration
Damage to the kidneysThese diseases, conditions and agents may damage the kidneys and lead to acute kidney failure:
 
  • Blood clots in the veins and arteries in and around the kidneys
  • Cholesterol deposits that block blood flow in the kidneys
  • Glomerulonephritis (gloe-mer-u-loe-nuh-FRY-tis), inflammation of the tiny filters in the kidneys (glomeruli)
  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome, a condition that results from premature destruction of red blood cells
  • Infection
  • Lupus, an immune system disorder causing glomerulonephritis
  • Medications, such as certain chemotherapy drugs, antibiotics and dyes used during imaging tests
  • Scleroderma, a group of rare diseases affecting the skin and connective tissues
  • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a rare blood disorder
  • Toxins, such as alcohol, heavy metals and cocaine
  • Muscle tissue breakdown (rhabdomyolysis) that leads to kidney damage caused by toxins from muscle tissue destruction
  • Breakdown of tumor cells (tumor lysis syndrome), which leads to the release of toxins that can cause kidney injury
Urine blockage in the kidneysDiseases and conditions that block the passage of urine out of the body (urinary obstructions) and can lead to acute kidney injury include:
 
  • Bladder cancer
  • Blood clots in the urinary tract
  • Cervical cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Enlarged prostate
  • Kidney stones
  • Nerve damage involving the nerves that control the bladder
  • Prostate cancer
Risk factorsAcute kidney failure almost always occurs in connection with another medical condition or event. Conditions that can increase your risk of acute kidney failure include:
 
  • Being hospitalized, especially for a serious condition that requires intensive care
  • Advanced age
  • Blockages in the blood vessels in your arms or legs (peripheral artery disease)
  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart failure
  • Kidney diseases
  • Liver diseases
  • Certain cancers and their treatments
ComplicationsPotential complications of acute kidney failure include:
 
  • Fluid buildup. Acute kidney failure may lead to a buildup of fluid in your lungs, which can cause shortness of breath.
  • Chest pain. If the lining that covers your heart (pericardium) becomes inflamed, you may experience chest pain.
  • Muscle weakness. When your body's fluids and electrolytes — your body's blood chemistry — are out of balance, muscle weakness can result.
  • Permanent kidney damage. Occasionally, acute kidney failure causes permanent loss of kidney function, or end-stage renal disease. People with end-stage renal disease require either permanent dialysis — a mechanical filtration process used to remove toxins and wastes from the body — or a kidney transplant to survive.
  • Death. Acute kidney failure can lead to loss of kidney function and, ultimately, death.
PreventionAcute kidney failure is often difficult to predict or prevent. But you may reduce your risk by taking care of your kidneys. Try to:
 
  • Pay attention to labels when taking over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications. Follow the instructions for OTC pain medications, such as aspirin, acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve, others). Taking too much of these medications may increase your risk of kidney injury. This is especially true if you have pre-existing kidney disease, diabetes or high blood pressure.
  • Work with your doctor to manage kidney and other chronic conditions. If you have kidney disease or another condition that increases your risk of acute kidney failure, such as diabetes or high blood pressure, stay on track with treatment goals and follow your doctor's recommendations to manage your condition.
  • Make a healthy lifestyle a priority. Be active; eat a sensible, balanced diet; and drink alcohol only in moderation — if at all.
xx Acanthosis nigricans
May 12, 2019, 07:31:19 AM by Andrew Freelance
Acanthosis nigricans
Acanthosis nigricans is a skin condition characterized by areas of dark, velvety discoloration in body folds and creases. The affected skin can become thickened. Most often, acanthosis nigricans affects your armpits, groin and neck.The skin changes of acanthosis nigricans (ak-an-THOE-sis NIE-grih-kuns) typically occur in people who are obese or have diabetes. Children who develop the condition are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Rarely, acanthosis nigricans can be a warning sign of a cancerous tumor in an internal organ, such as the stomach or liver.No specific treatment is available for acanthosis nigricans. Treatment of underlying conditions may restore some of the normal color and texture to affected areas of skin.   SymptomsSkin changes are the only signs of acanthosis nigricans. You'll notice dark, thickened, velvety skin in body folds and creases — typically in your armpits, groin and back of the neck. The skin changes usually appear slowly. The affected skin may also have an odor or itch.When to see a doctorConsult your doctor if you notice changes in your skin — especially if the changes appear suddenly. You may have an underlying condition that needs treatment.Request an Appointment at a doctor near you
CausesAcanthosis nigricans has been associated with:
  • Insulin resistance. Most people who have acanthosis nigricans have also become resistant to insulin. Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas that allows your body to process sugar. Insulin resistance is what eventually causes type 2 diabetes.
  • Hormonal disorders. Acanthosis nigricans often occurs in people who have disorders such as ovarian cysts, underactive thyroids or problems with the adrenal glands.
  • Certain drugs and supplements. High-dose niacin, birth control pills, prednisone and other corticosteroids may cause acanthosis nigricans.
  • Cancer. Acanthosis nigricans also sometimes occurs with lymphoma or when a cancerous tumor begins growing in an internal organ, such as the stomach, colon or liver.
Risk factorsAcanthosis nigricans risk factors include:
  • Obesity. The heavier you are, the higher your risk of acanthosis nigricans.
  • Race. Studies show that in the United States, acanthosis nigricans is more common among Native Americans.
  • Family history. Some types of acanthosis nigricans appear to be hereditary.
ComplicationsPeople who have acanthosis nigricans are much more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.
 
     
clip Understanding Gallstones Basics
April 12, 2019, 01:27:40 PM by Wale Adeleke
Understanding Gallstones  Basics

    What Causes Gallstones?

Gallstones are crystal-like deposits that develop in the gallbladder -- a small, pear-shaped organ that stores bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver.

These deposits may be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball; they may be hard or soft, smooth or jagged. You may have several gallstones or just one.

Some 30 million American adults suffer from gallstones. Yet most of those who have the condition do not realize it. In this case, what you don't know probably won't hurt you; gallstones that are simply floating around inside the gallbladder generally cause no symptoms and no harm.

These "silent" stones usually go unnoticed unless they show up in an ultrasound exam conducted for some other reason. However, the longer a stone exists in the gallbladder, the more likely it is to become problematic. People who have gallstones without symptoms have 20% chance of having an episode of pain during their lifetime.
Continue Reading Below
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When symptoms do occur, it's usually because the gallstone has moved and become lodged within a duct that carries bile, such as the cystic duct, a small conduit that connects the gallbladder to another tube called the common bile duct. The typical symptom is abdominal pain, perhaps accompanied by nausea, indigestion, or fever. The pain, caused by the gallbladder's contraction against the lodged stone, generally occurs within an hour of eating a large meal or in the middle of the night. Stones can also clog the common bile duct, which carries bile into the small intestine, and the hepatic ducts, which take bile out of the liver.

Obstructions in the bile pathway may cause a duct to become inflamed and possibly infected. Blockage of the common bile duct, which merges with the pancreatic duct at the small intestine, can also lead to inflammation of the pancreas (gallstone pancreatitis).

gallstones

In a rare but dangerous condition that occurs most often in older women, gallstones migrate into the small intestine and block the passageway into the large intestine; symptoms include severe and frequent vomiting. Although gallstones are present in about 80% of people with gallbladder cancer, it is uncertain whether gallstones play a role, except when really large stones (greater than 3 centimeters in diameter) are present.

About a million new cases of gallstones are diagnosed in the U.S. each year. For reasons that are still unclear, women are two times more likely than men to be afflicted. Native Americans have the highest rates of gallstones in the U.S. because they have a genetic disposition to secrete high levels of cholesterol in bile (a contributing factor to gallstones.) Mexican-Americans also have high rates of gallstones.

Gallstones are also more common in people over age 60, in those who are obese or have lost a lot of weight in a short amount of time, in those who have diabetes or sickle cell disease, and in women who have had multiple pregnancies and who take hormone replacement therapy or birth control pills.
What Causes Gallstones?

The primary function of the gallbladder is to store bile, a brown or yellowish fluid that helps the body break down fatty food. When you eat a meal, the gallbladder releases its stored bile into the cystic duct. From there the fluid passes through the common bile duct and into the small intestine to mix with food.

Chief among the ingredients of bile are cholesterol and bile acids. Normally, the concentration of bile acids is high enough to break down the cholesterol in the mixture and keep it in liquid form. However, a diet high in fat can tip this delicate balance, causing the liver to produce more cholesterol than the bile acids are able to handle. As a result, some of this excess cholesterol begins to solidify into crystals, which we call gallstones. About 80% of all gallstones are called cholesterol stones and are created this way. The remaining 20% consist of calcium mixed with the bile pigment bilirubin and are called pigment stones.

Gallstones can form even in people who eat properly. And as researchers have found, a diet extremely low in fat can also contribute to gallstone formation: With little fatty food to digest, the gallbladder is called into play less frequently than usual, so the cholesterol has more time to solidify. Other factors that can reduce activity in the gallbladder, possibly leading to gallstone formation, include cirrhosis, the use of birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy, and pregnancy.

Family history, diabetes, sudden weight loss, and cholesterol drugs, and older age can also increase risk for gallstones.
clip The Gallbladder
April 12, 2019, 01:15:27 PM by Wale Adeleke
 The Gallbladder
      Picture of Liver with Gallbladder

 
Front View of the Gallbladder

The gallbladder is a small pouch that sits just under the liver. The gallbladder stores bile produced by the liver. After meals, the gallbladder is empty and flat, like a deflated balloon. Before a meal, the gallbladder may be full of bile and about the size of a small pear.
Continue Reading Below

In response to signals, the gallbladder squeezes stored bile into the small intestine through a series of tubes called ducts. Bile helps digest fats, but the gallbladder itself is not essential. Removing the gallbladder in an otherwise healthy individual typically causes no observable problems with health or digestion yet there may be a small risk of diarrhea and fat malabsorption.


Gallbladder Conditions

    Gallstones (cholelithiasis): For unclear reasons, substances in bile can crystallize in the gallbladder, forming gallstones. Common and usually harmless, gallstones can sometimes cause pain, nausea, or inflammation.
    Cholecystitis: Infection of the gallbladder, often due to a gallstone in the gallbladder. Cholecystitis causes severe pain and fever, and can require surgery when infection continues or recurs.
    Gallbladder cancer: Although rare, cancer can affect the gallbladder. It is difficult to diagnose and usually found at late stages when symptoms appear. Symptoms may resemble those of gallstones.
    Gallstone pancreatitis: An impacted gallstone blocks the ducts that drain the pancreas. Inflammation of the pancreas results, a serious condition.

Gallbladder Tests

    Abdominal ultrasound: a noninvasive test in which a probe on the skin bounces high-frequency sound waves off structures in the belly. Ultrasound is an excellent test for gallstones and to check the gallbladder wall.
    HIDA scan (cholescintigraphy): In this nuclear medicine test, radioactive dye is injected intravenously and is secreted into the bile. Cholecystitis is likely if the scan shows bile doesn’t make it from the liver into the gallbladder.
    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): Using a flexible tube inserted through the mouth, through the stomach, and into the small intestine, a doctor can see through the tube and inject dye into the bile system ducts. Tiny surgical tools can be used to treat some gallstone conditions during ERCP.
    Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP): An MRI scanner provides high-resolution images of the bile ducts, pancreas, and gallbladder. MRCP images help guide further tests and treatments.
    Endoscopic ultrasound: A tiny ultrasound probe on the end of a flexible tube is inserted through the mouth to the intestines. Endoscopic ultrasound can help detect choledocholithiasis and gallstone pancreatitis.
    Abdominal X-ray: Although they may be used to look for other problems in the abdomen, X-rays generally cannot diagnose gallbladder disease. However, X-rays may be able to detect gallstones.
clip Cholecystectomy -gallbladder removal
April 12, 2019, 01:08:17 PM by Isaac Adeniran
Cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal)

Overview
A cholecystectomy (koh-luh-sis-TEK-tuh-me) is a surgical procedure to remove your gallbladder — a pear-shaped organ that sits just below your liver on the upper right side of your abdomen. Your gallbladder collects and stores bile — a digestive fluid produced in your liver.A cholecystectomy may be necessary if you experience pain from gallstones that block the flow of bile. A cholecystectomy is a common surgery, and it carries only a small risk of complications. In most cases, you can go home the same day of your cholecystectomy.
A cholecystectomy is most commonly performed by inserting a tiny video camera and special surgical tools through four small incisions to see inside your abdomen and remove the gallbladder. Doctors call this a laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
In some cases, one large incision may be used to remove the gallbladder. This is called an open cholecystectomy.
     Why it's doneA cholecystectomy is most commonly performed to treat gallstones and the complications they cause. Your doctor may recommend a cholecystectomy if you have:
 
  • Gallstones in the gallbladder (cholelithiasis)
  • Gallstones in the bile duct (choledocholithiasis)
  • Gallbladder inflammation (cholecystitis)
  • Pancreas inflammation (pancreatitis) due to gallstones
Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic RisksA cholecystectomy carries a small risk of complications including:
 
  • Bile leak
  • Bleeding
  • Blood clots
  • Heart problems
  • Infection
  • Injury to nearby structures, such as the bile duct, liver and small intestine
  • Pancreatitis
  • Pneumonia
Your risk of complications depends on your overall health and the reason for your cholecystectomy.
 How you prepareTo prepare for a cholecystectomy, your surgeon may ask you to:
 
  • Drink a solution to clean out your intestines. In the days before your procedure you may be given a prescription solution that flushes stool out of your intestines.
  • Eat nothing the night before your surgery. You may drink a sip of water with your medications, but avoid eating and drinking at least four hours before your surgery.
  • Stop taking certain medications and supplements. Tell your doctor about all the medications and supplements you take. Continue taking most medications as prescribed. Your doctor may ask you to stop taking certain medications and supplements because they may increase your risk of bleeding.
Prepare for your recoveryPlan ahead for your recovery after surgery. For instance:
 
  • Plan for a hospital stay. Most people go home the same day of their cholecystectomy, but complications can occur that require one or more nights in the hospital. If the surgeon needs to make a long incision in your abdomen to remove your gallbladder, you may need to stay in the hospital longer.
    It's not always possible to know ahead of time what procedure will be used. Plan ahead in case you need to stay in the hospital by bringing personal items, such as your toothbrush, comfortable clothing, and books or magazines to pass the time.
  • Find someone to drive you home and stay with you. Ask a friend or family member to drive you home and stay close the first night after surgery.
What you can expectA cholecystectomy is performed using general anesthesia, so you won't be aware during the procedure. Anesthesia drugs are given through a vein in your arm. Once the drugs take effect, your health care team will insert a tube down your throat to help you breathe. Your surgeon then performs the cholecystectomy using either a laparoscopic or open procedure.
 Minimally invasive (laparoscopic) cholecystectomyDuring a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgeon makes four small incisions in your abdomen. A tube with a tiny video camera is inserted into your abdomen through one of the incisions. Your surgeon watches a video monitor in the operating room while using surgical tools inserted through the other incisions in your abdomen to remove your gallbladder.
Next you may undergo an imaging test, such as an X-ray or ultrasound, if your surgeon is concerned about possible gallstones or other problems in your bile duct. Then your incisions are sutured, and you're taken to a recovery area. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy takes one or two hours.
A laparoscopic cholecystectomy isn't appropriate for everyone. In some cases your surgeon may begin with a laparoscopic approach and find it necessary to make a larger incision because of scar tissue from previous operations or complications.
 Traditional (open) cholecystectomyDuring an open cholecystectomy your surgeon makes a 6-inch (15-centimeter) incision in your abdomen below your ribs on your right side. The muscle and tissue are pulled back to reveal your liver and gallbladder. Your surgeon then removes the gallbladder.
The incision is sutured, and you're taken to a recovery area. An open cholecystectomy takes one or two hours.
 After a cholecystectomyYou'll be taken to a recovery area as the anesthesia drugs wear off. Then you'll be taken to a hospital room to continue recovery. Recovery varies depending on your procedure:
 
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy. People are often able to go home the same day as their surgery, though sometimes a one-night stay in the hospital is needed. In general, you can expect to go home once you're able to eat and drink without pain and are able to walk unaided. It takes about a week to fully recover.
  • Open cholecystectomy. Expect to spend two or three days in the hospital recovering. Once at home, it may take four to six weeks to fully recover.
ResultsA cholecystectomy can relieve the pain and discomfort of gallstones. Conservative treatments, such as dietary modifications, usually can't stop gallstones from recurring. A cholecystectomy is the only way to prevent gallstones.
Most people won't experience digestive problems after a cholecystectomy. Your gallbladder isn't essential to healthy digestion. Some people may experience occasional loose stool after the procedure, which generally resolves over time. Discuss with your doctor any changes in your bowel habits or new symptoms following your procedure.
How quickly you can return to normal activities after a cholecystectomy depends on which procedure your surgeon uses and your overall health. People undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy may be able to go back to work in a matter of days. Those undergoing an open cholecystectomy may need a week or more to recover enough to return to work.
clip Stugeron (cinnarizine)
April 11, 2019, 05:26:13 PM by Isaac Adeniran
 
Stugeron (cinnarizine)

This antihistamine can be bought from pharmacies to treat travel sickness - read on for advice on its use, warnings and side effects



What is Stugeron used for?
Preventing and treating travel sickness.
Relieving nausea, vomiting, attacks of dizziness or spinning sensations (vertigo) and sensations of ringing or other noise in the ears (tinnitus) associated with Meniere's disease and other middle ear disorders.
Sturgeron tablets BUY NOW

How does Stugeron work?
Stugeron tablets contain 15mg cinnarizine as the active ingredient. Cinnarizine is an antihistamine medicine that works in the brain. It prevents an area of the brain called the vomiting centre from receiving nerve messages sent from the vestibular apparatus in the inner ear.

The vestibular apparatus provides continual feedback to the brain about our body position. When something disturbs this, such as movement of the head when travelling by boat or car, nerve signals are sent from the vestibular apparatus to the vomiting centre in the brain. This can cause sensations such as nausea, dizziness or spinning sensations (vertigo) and the reflex of vomiting.

Cinnarizine works by blocking histamine and muscarinic receptors in the vomiting centre in the brain. This prevents the vomiting centre from receiving nerve messages from the vestibular apparatus. In turn, this prevents disturbances in the middle ear from activating the vomiting centre and causing nausea, vertigo and vomiting.

How do I take Stugeron?
Stugeron tablets can be chewed, sucked or swallowed whole.
If you find this medicine upsets your stomach, taking it with or after food may help.
Do not take more than the recommended dose.
To prevent travel sickness:

Adults and adolescents aged over 12 years should take two tablets two hours before travel. You can then take one tablet every eight hours during the journey if needed.
Children aged 5 to 12 years should take one tablet two hours before travel. Children can then be given half a tablet every eight hours during the journey if needed.
To treat the symptoms of inner ear disorders such as Meniere's disease:

Adults and adolescents aged over 12 years should take two tablets three times a day.
Children aged 5 to 12 years should take one tablet three times day.
What should I know before taking Stugeron?
Stugeron may cause drowsiness. If affected do not drive or operate machinery.
You should not drink alcohol while taking Stugeron, as this is likely to make drowsiness worse.
If you are due to have any skin prick tests to diagnose allergies you should stop taking Stugeron at least 48 hours before the tests. This is because antihistamines can prevent or lessen the skin reactions that indicate an allergy, and so can make the test results unreliable.
Who should not take Stugeron?
Children under five years of age.
People with rare hereditary blood disorders called porphyrias.
Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
People with rare hereditary problems of fructose or galactose intolerance, Lapp lactase deficiency, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency (Stugeron tablets contain lactose and sucrose).
People who are allergic to any of the ingredients. If you feel you have experienced an allergic reaction, stop using Stugeron and inform your doctor or pharmacist immediately.
Who should get medical advice before taking Stugeron?
People with kidney or liver problems.
People with Parkinson's disease.
Can I take Stugeron while pregnant or breastfeeding?
Stugeron should not be taken by pregnant women because the safety of cinnarizine for use during pregnancy has not been established. Seek further medical advice from your doctor.
Stugeron should not be taken by women who are breastfeeding because it is not known if cinnarizine passes into breast milk. Ask your doctor for further advice.
What are the possible side effects of Stugeron?
Medicines and their possible side effects can affect individual people in different ways. The following are some of the side effects that are known to be associated with cinnarizine. Just because a side effect is stated here, it does not mean that all people taking Stugeron will experience that or any side effect.

Common (affect between 1 in 10 and 1 in 100 people)
Drowsiness.
Weight gain (with long-term use).
Indigestion.
Nausea.
Uncommon (affect between 1 in 100 and 1 in 1000 people)
Feeling lethargic.
Fatigue.
Abdominal pain.
Vomiting.
Sweating.
Frequency unknown
Headache.
Dry mouth.
Skin reactions.
Abnormal movements of the hands, legs, face, neck or tongue, eg tremor, twitching, rigidity (stop taking Stugeron and consult your doctor if you experience any symptoms like this).
Jaundice (stop taking Stugeron and consult your doctor if you notice any yellowing of your eyes or skin while taking it).
Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist if you want any more
information about the possible side effects of Stugeron. If you think you
have experienced a side effect, did you know you can report this using the yellow card website?

Can I take Stugeron with other medicines?
It is important to tell your doctor or pharmacist what medicines you are already taking, including those bought without a prescription and herbal medicines, before you start taking Stugeron. Similarly, check with your doctor or pharmacist before taking any new medicines while taking Stugeron, to make sure that the combination is safe.

There may be an increased risk of drowsiness if you take Stugeron with other medicines that can cause drowsiness, such as the following:

antipsychotics, eg chlorpromazine, haloperidol
benzodiazepines, eg diazepam, temazepam
 sedating antihistamines, eg chlorphenamine, promethazine, hydroxyzine
sleeping tablets, eg zopiclone
strong opioid painkillers, eg morphine, codeine, tramadol, fentanyl
tricyclic antidepressants, eg amitriptyline.
Cinnarizine may oppose the effect of betahistine (used to treat Meniere's disease) and histamine (used to treat leukaemia).

Other medicines containing the same active ingredient
Boots motion sickness 15mg tablets.
Cinnarizine 15mg tablets are also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine.

Last updated 04.07.2016


 
clip How to diagnose Meningitis
May 25, 2018, 01:14:16 PM by Charles Dickson



When you are having all the symptoms above and your doctor suspects you have meningitis, In most cases, your doctor will perform a lumbar puncture or spinal tap. A spinal tap, which extracts cerebrospinal fluid from your spine, is the only definitive way to diagnosis meningitis. Spinal fluid is made by the brain and surrounds the brain and spinal cord to protect it. Your spinal fluid will have high protein levels and an increased white blood cell count if you have meningitis. This fluid can also help your doctor determine whether bacteria, viruses, or other infectious agents are causing the meningitis.
Your doctor may also order additional tests to determine the specific virus that caused the aseptic meningitis. These tests can include blood tests or imaging tests, such as X-rays and CT scans.

How to Prevent Meningitis

Antibiotics can be given to help prevent meningitis
Antibiotics can be given to help prevent meningitis this is because bacterial meningitis can be life-threatening, standard meningitis treatment involves delivering the antibiotics intravenously, through a vein. According to Nigrovic “IV [intravenous] antibiotics will ensure that high levels of the medicine will get into the central nervous system where the infection really exists,”
 Antibiotics are typically given three times a day for 7 to 21 days, depending on the type of bacteria organism causing the meningitis and the type of antibiotic chosen. Patients are often in an intensive care unit of a hospital during meningitis treatment so that they can be watched carefully to be sure the antibiotic treatment is effective.
Avoid close contact with someone who has meningitis
Try to avoid any contact with fluid secrets from the victim’s mouth and nose (for example, kissing, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation, sharing drinks or utensils)
Get vaccinated
Getting vaccinated against meningitis is considered as the most popular and effective way to prevent the disease.
There are two main types of vaccines that are commonly used to protect you from meningitis. It is recommended that you should take a vaccine at age 11 or 12 and then have the second one when you are 16 or 18 years old. The reason for this is that people have more risk of getting meningitis between the ages of 16 and 21. If you plan to enter into the military or go traveling or migrate to another country in which meningitis is a common disease then take a vaccine is highly recommended.
In addition, getting vaccines that prevent some common diseases like measles, mumps, rubella, and chickenpox is also very useful because they can protect you from these disease as well as viral meningitis.
Don't Share Personal Items

Meningitis can be contracted when you come in contact with respiratory or throat secretions — saliva, sputum, nasal mucus — of someone who is infected, either through kissing or sharing personal items. You can prevent the spread of meningitis by not sharing items where secretions can lurk, such as drinking glasses, water bottles, straws, silverware, toothbrushes, lipsticks or lip glosses, and cigarettes.

Strengthen your immune system
In addition to protect yourself from outside factors, it is very important to protect from inside by strengthening your immune system.
If unfortunately you get exposure to factors that can cause meningitis, a good and healthy immune system will help in the situations like this. It works to fight against these factors and protect you from viruses and bacteria. Eating healthy is very necessary for a system to work effectively. So, remember to create for your own and family members a healthy diet with fresh fruits and vegetables, whole grains and lean proteins. Also, combine healthy eating with regular exercise and sleeping enough will bring more good results.

Take some supplements.

Vitamins like A, C, E and D are very helpful in maintaining good health and decreasing the possibility of developing inflammation around the brain and spinal cord. The B family of vitamins supports the immune system as well as the nervous system, making it even harder for meningitis to develop. Don't forget fish oils and other sources of fatty acids that help decrease inflammation in general and serve as food for the immune system.

clip Meningitis
May 25, 2018, 12:54:10 PM by Charles Dickson




What Is Meningitis?
Meningitis is a deadly infection that affects the delicate membranes known as (Meninges) which cover the brain and spinal cord. It is viral or bacterial infection is contagious among people in close contact.
We also have another type of Meningitis it is called Fungal meningitis; this is a rare type of meningitis and generally occurs only in people with weakened immune systems.



clip Pulmonary Tuberculosis
May 18, 2018, 12:32:31 AM by Isaac Adeniran
Pulmonary Tuberculosis
 Pulmonary Tuberculosis is an infectious disease which usually affects the lungs caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Infectious means that you can get it from other people or give it to other people.  TB can also develop in other parts of the body as extrapulmonary tuberculosis. TB is spread by aerosols from people with active Pulmonary TB when they cough, sneeze, speak, or spit. People nearby may breath in the bacteria and if they have a weak immune system, become infected.
 
 Tuberculosis infection or inactive TB means that a person has TB bacteria but his body has been successful in fighting the bacteria, preventing it from causing illness.   People with Tuberculosis infection do not feel sick, do not have symptoms and cannot spread TB germs.
 
 Tuberculosis disease or active TB means that a person has TB bacteria but his body has been unsuccessful in fighting the bacteria. People with active TB feel sick, have symptoms and can spread TB germs.
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