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Children and Adolescent Health

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xx How to Treat Eating Disorders in Children
April 19, 2019, 06:45:04 AM by Isaac Adeniran
How to Treat Eating Disorders in Children

The number of children suffering from eating disorders are on the rise. Change in eating habits, stress, depression, low self-esteem, lack of control in life, anger and loneliness are some of the causes of eating disorders. Some genetic disorders could also be a reason for eating disorders.

Eating disorders may lead to several health conditions which may arise in case of abnormal eating patterns. The common modes of eating disorders in children are as follows:

Anorexia: Children who are affected with anorexia think they are very overweight in spite of actually being very thin. Anorexia affected children consume less than a thousand calories per day.
The treatment for anorexia nervosa generally includes a mix of mental treatment and regulated weight gain program. The best ways to deal with anorexia are:

    Psychological Treatment: Different psychological treatments can be used to cure anorexia of different stages in children. They include cognitive analytic therapy, Cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy and focal psychodynamic therapy. A family's response is also an important psychological factor. Proper encouragement and effort should be provided.
    Weight gain program: A weight gain program will guide an anorexic child to improve his diet habits and slowly gain weight. A patient is monitored carefully; the traits are recognized and a diet pattern is given, which is ideal for him.

Bulimia: Bulimia nervosa is another category of eating disorder. The main characteristic of this disorder is overeating in the highest level. Binge eating is observed, followed by attempts by the affected individual to lose weight. A bulimia affected child is constantly trapped in the cycle of overeating and then thinks about losing weight.

In spite of not liking the idea of binge eating for the fear of getting obese, a child affected by bulimia cannot follow this and continues binge eating. Later, they take extreme measures to lose weight. The primary methods to deal with bulimia are:

    Psychotherapy: Psychotherapy or talk therapy includes examining the bulimia and related issues with an expert. It has been proven that psychotherapy restricts the symptoms of bulimia. The three modes of psychotherapy include, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Family-based therapy and Interpersonal psychotherapy
    Medications: Medicines such as anti-depressants can be taken by bulimia patients along with psychotherapy. Prozac is one medicine that can be taken.
    Proper diet plan: For bulimia affected children, having a proper balanced diet is very important. A diet expert should be consulted, who will make the most essential food pattern for the child. Undertaking a weight-loss program is also vital.

Binge eating: Similar to bulimia, binge eating includes out of control eating in huge quantities in a short period of time. The food is not vomited out, and binge eating causes obesity. Intense emotions are experienced in binge eaters. Binge eating in children can be treated with behavioral therapy, medications and psychotherapy.
Eating disorders are quite common in children who are yet to gain maturity.

These disorders may lead to severe health consequences, which may affect a child physically and psychologically. A proper treatment is also essential to deal with these disorders. If you wish to discuss any specific problem, you can consult a doctor.

clip 8 Infant Basics you should know
April 10, 2019, 11:28:04 PM by Isaac Adeniran
 8 Infant Basics you should know



Some physical conditions and issues are very common during the first couple of weeks after birth. Many are normal, and the infant's caregivers can deal with them if they occur. Mostly, it is a matter of the caregivers learning about what is normal for their infant and getting comfortable with the new routine in the household.

New parents and caregivers often have questions about several aspects of their infant's health and well-being.

Bowel Movements
Care of the Umbilicus
Colic
Diaper Rash
Spitting Up/Vomiting
Teething
Urination
Jaundice
Bowel Movements
Infants' bowel movements go through many changes in color and consistency, even within the first few days after birth. It's important to keep track of your infant's bowel movements. Some things to look for include:

Color. A newborn's first bowel movements usually consist of a thick, black or dark green substance called meconium (pronounced mi-KOH-nee-uhm). After the meconium is passed, the stools ("poop") will turn yellow-green. The stools of breastfed infants look mustard-yellow with seed-like particles.
Consistency. Until the infant starts to eat solid foods, the consistency of the stool can range from very soft to loose and runny. Formula-fed infants usually have stools that are tan or yellow in color and firmer than those of a breastfed infant. Whether your baby is breastfed or bottle-fed, hard or very dry stools may be a sign of dehydration.
Frequency. Infants who are eating solid foods can become constipated if they eat too many constipating foods, such as cereal or cow's milk, before their system can handle them. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) do not recommend cow's milk for babies under 12 months.
Also, because an infant's stools are normally soft and a little runny, it's not always easy to tell when a young infant has mild diarrhea. The main signs are a sudden increase in the number of bowel movements (more than one per feeding) and watery stools.

Diarrhea can be a sign of intestinal infection, or it may be caused by a change in diet. If the infant is breastfeeding, diarrhea can result from a change in the mother's diet. The main concern with diarrhea is the possibility that dehydration can develop. If fever is also present and your infant is less than 2 months old, you should call your health care provider. If the infant is over 2 months old and the fever lasts more than a day, check the infant's urine output and rectal temperature and consult a health care provider. Make sure the infant continues to feed often.

Starting around the age of 3 to 6 weeks, some breastfed babies have only one bowel movement a week. This is normal because breast milk leaves very little solid waste to pass through the digestive system. Formula-fed infants should have at least one bowel movement a day. If a formula-fed infant has fewer bowel movements than this and appears to be straining because of hard stools, constipation may be the cause. Check with your health care provider if there are any changes in or problems with your infant's bowel movements.

Care of the Umbilicus
The umbilical cord delivers oxygen and nutrients to the fetus while it is in the womb. After delivery, the umbilical cord is cut. The remaining part of the cord dries and falls off in about 10 days, forming the belly button (navel).

Follow your health care provider's recommendations about how to care for the umbilicus. This care might include:

Keeping the area clean and dry.
Folding down the top of the diaper to expose the umbilicus to the air.
Cleaning the umbilicus gently with a baby wipe or with a cotton swab dipped in rubbing alcohol.
Contact your health care provider if there is pus or redness.1

Colic
Many infants are fussy in the evenings, but if the crying does not stop and gets worse throughout the day or night, it may be caused by colic (pronounced KOL-ik). According to the AAP, about one-fifth of all infants develop colic, usually starting between 2 and 4 weeks of age. They may cry inconsolably or scream, extend or pull up their legs, and pass gas. Their stomachs may be enlarged. The crying spells can occur anytime, although they often get worse in the early evening.

The colic will likely improve or disappear by the age of 3 or 4 months. There is no definite explanation for why some infants get colic. Sometimes, in breastfeeding babies, colic is a sign of sensitivity to a food in the mother's diet. Rarely, colic is caused by sensitivity to milk protein in formula. Colic could be a sign of a medical problem, such as a hernia or some type of illness.

If your infant shows signs of colic, the first step is to consult with your health care provider. Sometimes changing the diet of a breastfeeding mother or changing the formula for bottle-fed infants can help. Some infants seem to be soothed by being held, rocked, or wrapped snugly in a blanket. Some like a pacifier.2,3

Diaper Rash
A rash on the skin covered by a diaper is quite common. It is usually caused by irritation of the skin from being in contact with stool and urine. It can get worse during bouts of diarrhea. Diaper rash usually can be prevented by frequent diaper changes.

Your health care provider can recommend care for diaper rash, which may include:

Rinsing the skin with warm water, using soap only after bowel movements. Because baby wipes may leave a film of bacteria on the skin, their use is often not recommended.
Exposing the rash to air as much as possible by loosely attaching the diaper at the waist, or removing the diaper entirely during naps.
Laying the infant on a towel to absorb urine.
Caregivers should contact a health care provider if the rash is not better in 3 days or if the child becomes worse.4

Spitting Up/Vomiting
Spitting up is a common occurrence for newborns and is usually not a sign of a more serious problem. After feeding, try to keep the infant calm and in an upright position for a little while. Keep a burp towel handy, just in case. Contact your health care provider immediately if your infant5:

Is not gaining weight
Is spitting up so forcefully that stomach contents shoot out of the infant's mouth
Spits up green or yellow liquid, blood, or a substance that looks like coffee grounds
Has blood in the stool
Shows other signs of illness, such as fever, diarrhea, or difficulty with breathing
Some parents worry that their infant will spit up and choke if they are put to sleep on their backs, but this is not the case. Healthy infants naturally swallow or cough up fluids—it's a reflex all people have. Where the opening to the windpipe is located in the body makes it unlikely for fluids to cause choking. Babies may actually clear such fluids better when on their backs.

The NICHD's Safe to Sleep® Campaign (formerly the Back to Sleep campaign) recommends placing infants to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Since the recommendation for back sleeping began in 1992, the number of fatal choking deaths has not increased. In fact, in most of the few reported cases of fatal choking, an infant was sleeping on his or her stomach.1

Teething
Although newborns usually have no visible teeth, baby teeth begin to appear generally about 6 months after birth. During the first few years, all 20 baby teeth will push through the gums, and most children will have their full set of these teeth in place by age 3.

An infant's front four teeth usually appear first, at about 6 months of age, although some children don't get their first tooth until 12 or 14 months. As their teeth break through the gums, some infants become fussy, sleepless, and irritable; lose their appetite; or drool more than usual. If an infant has a fever or diarrhea while teething or continues to be cranky and uncomfortable, contact your baby's health care provider.6

The FDA does not recommend gum-numbing medications with an ingredient called benzocaine because they can cause a potentially fatal condition in young children. Talk to your health care provider for advice on using these products for your teething infant.7 Other potential forms of relief for your infant include a chilled teething ring or gently rubbing the child's gums with a clean finger.7

Urination
Infants urinate as often as every 1 to 3 hours or as infrequently as every 4 to 6 hours. In case of sickness or if the weather is very hot, urine output might drop by half and still be normal.

Urination should never be painful. If you notice any signs of distress while your infant is urinating, notify your child's health care provider because this could be a sign of infection or some other problem in the urinary tract. In a healthy child, urine is light to dark yellow in color. (The darker the color, the more concentrated the urine; the urine is more concentrated when the child is not drinking much liquid.) The presence of blood in the urine or a bloody spot on the diaper is not normal and should prompt a call to the health care provider. If this bleeding occurs with other symptoms, such as abdominal pain or bleeding in other areas, immediate medical attention is needed.8

Jaundice
Jaundice (pronounced JAWN-diss) can cause an infant's skin, eyes, and mouth to turn a yellowish color. The yellow color is caused by a buildup of bilirubin, a substance that is produced in the body during the normal process of breaking down old red blood cells and forming new ones.

Normally the liver removes bilirubin from the body. But, for many infants, in the first few days after birth, the liver is not yet working at its full power. As a result, the level of bilirubin in the blood gets too high, causing the infant's color to become slightly yellow—this is jaundice.

Although jaundice is common and usually not serious, in some cases, high levels of bilirubin could cause brain injury. All infants with jaundice need to be seen by a health care provider.

Many infants need no treatment. Their livers start to catch up quickly and begin to remove bilirubin normally, usually within a few days after birth. For some infants, health care providers prescribe phototherapy—a treatment using a special lamp—to help break down the bilirubin in their bodies.

If your infant has jaundice, ask your health care provider how long the child's jaundice should last after leaving the hospital, and schedule a follow-up appointment as directed. If the jaundice lasts longer than expected, or an infant who did not have jaundice starts to turn yellowish after going home, a health care provider should be consulted right away. If you intend to get discharged early, particularly within 48 hours of birth, your infant's jaundice may peak later in the first week.

It is almost impossible to say how severe the jaundice level is by just looking at the baby's skin, especially for infants of color. Therefore, make every effort to keep follow-up appointments so the health care provider can check the level of jaundice with a simple blood test.


 
clip Common Infant and Newborn Problems
April 10, 2019, 11:18:30 PM by Isaac Adeniran
 Common Infant and Newborn Problems
Common Infant and Newborn Problems

It is hard when your baby is sick. Common health problems in babies include colds, coughs, fevers, and vomiting. Babies also commonly have skin problems, like diaper rash or cradle cap.

Many of these problems are not serious. It is important to know how to help your sick baby, and to know the warning signs for more serious problems. Trust your intuition - if you are worried about your baby, call your health care provider right away.


Common Conditions in Newborns (American Academy of Pediatrics)
Also in Spanish
What Are Some of the Basics of Infant Health? From the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)
Also in Spanish
Treatments and Therapies


Treatments and Therapies has been expanded.
Diaper Rash: How to Treat (American Academy of Dermatology)
Do Not Give Infants Cough and Cold Products Designed for Older Children (Food and Drug Administration)
How to Give Your Child Medicine (American Academy of Family Physicians)


Treating Vomiting (American Academy of Pediatrics)
Also in Spanish
When to Give Kids Medicine for Coughs and Colds (Food and Drug Administration)

Specifics

Specifics has been expanded.
Baby Acne (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Also in Spanish
Colic (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Also in Spanish
Colic (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Common Cold in Babies: Symptoms and Causes (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Also in Spanish
Coughing (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation)


Diaper Rash (Nemours Foundation)
Diaper Rash (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Ear Infections (American Academy of Family Physicians)


Facts about Jaundice and Kernicterus (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature (Nemours Foundation)
Also in Spanish
First Aid: Diaper Rash (Nemours Foundation)
Flat Head Syndrome (Positional Plagiocephaly) (Nemours Foundation)
Also in Spanish
Jaundice in Healthy Newborns (Nemours Foundation)


Milia (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
Oral Thrush (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation)


Plagiocephaly (American Academy of Family Physicians)

Tear-Duct Obstruction and Surgery (Nemours Foundation)

Vomiting (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation)
Your Child's Vision (Nemours Foundation)

Your Colicky Baby (Nemours Foundation)


Candidiasis, Diaper Dermatitis (Logical Images)
Dermatitis, Diaper Irritant (Logical Images)
Milia (Logical Images)
Miliaria Rubra (Logical Images)
Mongolian Spot (Blue-Gray Spot) (Logical Images)
Health Check Tools
Collapse Section
Health Check Tools has been expanded.
Elimination Problems in Infants and Children (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Also in Spanish
Feeding Problems in Infants and Children (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Also in Spanish
Fever in Infants and Children (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Also in Spanish
Mouth Problems in Infants and Children (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Also in Spanish
Nausea and Vomiting in Infants and Children (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Also in Spanish
Clinical Trials
Collapse Section
Clinical Trials has been expanded.
ClinicalTrials.gov: Diaper Rash From the National Institutes of Health (National Institutes of Health)
ClinicalTrials.gov: Infant, Newborn, Diseases From the National Institutes of Health (National Institutes of Health)
ClinicalTrials.gov: Infantile Colic From the National Institutes of Health (National Institutes of Health)
Journal Articles
References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
Expand Section
Find an Expert
Collapse Section
Find an Expert has been expanded.
Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development From the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development)
Also in Spanish
Find a Pediatrician or Pediatric Specialist (American Academy of Pediatrics)
Also in Spanish
KidsHealth (Nemours Foundation)
Patient Handouts
Collapse Section
Patient Handouts has been expanded.
Colic and crying - self-care (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
Crying - excessive (0-6 months) (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
Diaper rash (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
Diarrhea in infants (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
Newborn jaundice - discharge (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
Rash - child under 2 years (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
When your baby or infant has a fever (Medical Encyclopedia)
Also in Spanish
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Common Infant and Newborn Problems
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MEDICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA
Colic and crying - self-care
Crying - excessive (0-6 months)
Diaper rash
Diarrhea in infants
Diastasis recti
Ear tag
Epstein pearls
Erythema toxicum
Exchange transfusion
Exchange transfusion - slideshow
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Related Health Topics
Baby Health Checkup
Dandruff, Cradle Cap, and Other Scalp Conditions
Infant and Newborn Care
Infant and Newborn Development
Infant and Newborn Nutrition
Medicines and Children
Reflux in Infants
Uncommon Infant and Newborn Problems
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xx Treatment for Measles
May 12, 2018, 08:01:44 AM by abejoye
Treatment for Measles

There is no specific measles treatment. If there are no complications the doctor will recommend plenty of rest and normal measures to control the fever and prevent dehydration (drink fluids). Symptoms will usually go away within 7 to 10 days.
If your child has measles, the following measures may help:

    Fever - if the temperature is high try to keep the child cool, but make sure he/she is not cold. Tylenol (Paracetamol, Acetaminophen) or ibuprofen is effective in controlling fever, as well as aches and pain. Children under 16 should not be given aspirin. Check with your doctor about acetaminophen dosage - too much can harm the child, especially the liver.

    Smoking - do not let anyone smoke near the child with measles.
    Photophobia - as the child may be painfully sensitive to light, keeping the lights dim or the room darkened may help. Sunglasses may also help.

    Conjunctivitis - if there is crustiness around the eyes gently clean with damp cotton wool.
    Cough - cough medicines will not relieve the cough. Making the room more humid by placing a bowl of water may help the cough. If the child is over twelve a glass of warm water with a teaspoon of lemon juice and two teaspoons of honey may help. Do not give honey to babies.

    Dehydration - make sure the child is hydrated. If the child has a fever he/she can become dehydrated more quickly. Encourage the child to drink plenty of fluids.

    Isolation - while children are contagious they should be kept away from school and should not return to activities that involve human interaction. Non-immunized people who have never had measles should be kept out of the house.
    Vitamin A supplements - studies have shown that Vitamin A supplements significantly help prevent complications caused by measles. Supplements are recommended for children with vitamin A deficiency and children under the age of two who have severe measles. Vitamin A deficiency is virtually non-existent in developed countries, but fairly common in much of the developing world.

As measles is caused by a virus antibiotics will not have any effect on it. However, sometimes antibiotics may be prescribed for any infections that may develop.

Measles Home Remedies/Home Cure

If you or your child has measles, the first thing that you need to do is to keep your doctor informed as you monitor the progress of the disease and watch for complications. Also try to do these:

    Avoid reading or watching television if light from a reading lamp or from the television is difficult.
     Drink plenty of water, fruit juice and herbal tea to replace fluids lost by fever and sweating.
    Get rest and avoid busy activities.
    If you or your child finds bright light difficult, as do many people with measles, keep the lights low or wear sunglasses.
    Use a humidifier to relieve cough and sore throat.
xx Prevent of Measles
May 12, 2018, 07:59:44 AM by abejoye
How to Prevent Measles

    Get the measles vaccine:

  People who cannot show that they were vaccinated as children and who have never had measles should be vaccinated.
Infants 6-11 months of age should have 1 dose of measles vaccine if traveling internationally.
Children in the United States routinely receive measles vaccination at 12-15 months of age.
Infants vaccinated before or 12 months of age should be revaccinated on or after the first birthday with 2 doses, separated by at least 28 days.
Adolescents and adults who have not had measles or have not been vaccinated should get 2 doses, separated by at least 28 days.
Two doses of MMR (measles, mumps & rubella) vaccine is nearly 100% effective at preventing measles.

    Immune suppressed - should be excluded until 14 days after the first day of the appearance of rash in the last case.
xx How to diagnose Measles
May 12, 2018, 07:57:55 AM by abejoye
How to diagnose Measles

Your doctor will usually be able to diagnose measles from the combination of your symptoms, especially the characteristic rash and the small spots inside your mouth. However, a simple blood or saliva test is usually done to confirm the diagnosis.
Complications of measles
Measles is the fifth leading cause of death and sickness in children worldwide, reports the Better Health Channel.

    Blindness
    Bronchitis
    Decrease in blood platelets
    Decrease in blood platelets
    Ear infection
    Miscarriage or preterm labor
    Severe diarrhea

When to call the Doctor

Call the doctor immediately if you suspect that your child has measles. Also, it's important to get medical care when you notice that if your child is having any of these:
· A fit (convulsion). Most important: remember that measles, a once common disease, is preventable through routine childhood immunization.
· Breathing Difficulties
· Drowsiness
What is the danger of getting Measles while pregnant?
If a woman contracts measles while she is pregnant, she may have a miscarriage, a stillbirth, or a preterm delivery. But for German measles which also known as rubella virus this has risk of having birth defects
clip Symptoms and Signs of Measles
May 12, 2018, 07:52:46 AM by abejoye


What Are the Symptoms and Signs of Measles?

    Cough
    Fever
    Light sensitivity
    Muscle aches
    Red eyes
    Runny nose
    Sore throat
    White spots inside the mouth


A widespread skin rash is a classic sign of measles. This rash can last up to seven days and generally appears within the first three to five days of exposure to the virus. A measles rash commonly develops at the head and slowly spreads to other parts of the body.
Symptoms/Signs of Measles Rash
Red Itchy Bumps
Red Rash
clip What Causes Measles?
May 12, 2018, 07:48:37 AM by abejoye



Measles
Measles is an infectious disease causing fever and a red rash on the skin, mainly affects children but can occur at any age. Measles, also known as Rubeola or morbilli it is a viral infection of the respiratory system.
 Measles is a very contagious disease that can spread through contact with infected mucus and saliva. The coughing or sneezing of an infected person can release the virus into the air. The virus can live on surfaces for several hours. As the infected particles enter the air and settle on surfaces, anyone within close proximity can become infected with the measles virus.

What Causes Measles?

You can contact Measles through:
ngMeasles

    Being nearby infected people if they cough or sneeze.
    Hot Weather sometimes causes it.
    Physical contact with an infected person.
    Touching a surface that has infected droplets of mucus (the virus remains active for two hours) and then putting your fingers into your mouth, rubbing your nose or eyes.
clip One million premature babies die annually
November 23, 2017, 01:00:50 AM by Isaac Adeniran
One million premature babies die annually’

No fewer than one million premature babies die annually due to complications, the founder of Abiye Maternal and Child Health International Foundation (AMCH), Dr Elizabeth Disu, has said.

Disu, according to a statement on Wednesday, stated this at the AMCH World Prematurity Day celebration in Ikeja, Lagos, adding that prematurity was one of the leading causes of newborn deaths in the world.

“Prematurity is the most single cause of newborns deaths. About 15 million preterm babies are delivered worldwide, out of which one million die and three quarters of the deaths are preventable. Most of these deaths are in the developing countries.

“Nigeria has the highest number of preterm babies and the highest number of newborn deaths in the world.  If preterm babies survived, we will be able to reduce the rate of neonatal deaths in this country,” she said.


xx Babies without exclusive breastfeeding prone to ear infection
August 27, 2017, 05:06:05 AM by Isaac Adeniran
Babies without exclusive breastfeeding prone to ear infection — Expert

A consultant ENT surgeon at the Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Dr. Omokanye Habeeb, speaks on ear infection and how to avoid it with MOTUNRAYO JOEL

What is an ear infection?

Ear infection simply refers to a disease condition of the human ear caused by microorganism commonly bacteria, virus or fungus.

The human ear is anatomically divided into three parts; the external ear, middle ear, and the inner ear. The external ear comprises the pinna and the ear canal up to the tympanic membrane (ear drum), which forms the boundary between the external and middle ear. The middle ear is located in-between the external and the inner ear which houses the main sense organ of hearing (organ of corti) and balance. Infection may start and localise in any part of the ear. It may also spread from one focus to other parts of the ear and adjacent structures.

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